Internationally considered a significant site for pre-history and metallurgy. Its not only the large and 6000 year old gold treasures (including a penis sheath), but many other treasures from the area.
Discovery and excavation
In October 1972, excavator operator Raycho Marinov accidently discovered one of the greatest archaeological finds from the past 60 years. He contacted the local museum. What they found contained some of the most sophisticated examples of gold and copper metallurgy; pottery; high quality flint and obsidian blades; beads; and, shells from the Neolithic era, and Chalcolithic Varna culture.
Many of the sites graves did not contain a skeleton, but had great gifts. The empty graves actually had the richest gold artifacts. Three thousand gold artifacts were found. At a weight of approximately six kilograms. Grave 43 contained more gold than has been found in the entire rest of the world for that epoch. It was initially identified as the grave of a prince, but is now thought to be that of the smith . It is the oldest cemetary where humans were buried with gold. The total gold at Varna Necropolis exceeds the amount found on earth from the period 7000-6000 years ago.
Nearbys Sredna Gora copper mine, and the mediterraneans spondylus shells were currency. Varna culture probably had huge trade relations with distant lands. Vindicated at this site. Chalcolithic Varna culture had some of the earliest sophisticated beliefs about status differences and afterlife.
Since being on television, and touring the world. Many of Varna Necropolises artifacts can be seen at the Varna Archaeological Museum and at the National Historical Museum in Sofia.
Bibliography: Anthony, D. W., J. Y. Chi (Eds.) 2010. The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000–3500 BC. Princeton, U.P.
Chapman, J. 1991. The creation of social arenas in Varna. – In: P. Garwood (Ed.). Sacred and Profane. Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph 32, 152–171.
Avramova, M. 2000. Myth, ritual and gold of a “civilization that did not take place”. – In: Varna Necropolis. Varna, Agató, 15–24.
Gimbutas, M. 1977. Varna: a sensationally rich cemetery at the Karanovo civilization: about 4500 B.C. – Expedition, Summer, 39–47.
Chapman, J. 1990. Social inequality on Bulgarian tells and the Varna problem. – In: R. Samson (ed.). The Social Archaeology of Houses, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, 49–98.