Western France. One of the most famous and well-preserved groups of prehistoric burial mounds (or tumulus) exist. Raising scientific interest. There discovery in 1840 got many involved. Including tool operators. Archaeologists. Scientists. And, public/private business.
Earth and stone
Consisting of a central mound. Constructed using earth and stone. It is surrounded by circular perimeter. Inside, is a the central mound. Where there are burial chambers. From an estimated almost 6000 to 4500 (4800 to 2500 BC) years ago.
The central tumulus is relatively large
Diameter of about 60 meters (almost 200 feet) and a height of around 5 meters (18 feet). It is the largest in the necropolis of Bougon. Some of the megalithic structures with engraved symbols, geometric patterns, and decorative motifs. Are thought to have had symbolic or religious significance here.
Tumulus A is a stepped mound
Diameter of 42 meters and a max height of 5m. Its large rectangular chamber likes south of its center. About 8x5x2 meters (lxwxh). The walls contain large flat slabs of stone. the gaps in between were filled with smaller stone. Its capstone weighs an estimated 90 tons. Supported by two monoliths. That also divide the chamber.
When excavated almost 200 years ago. Around 200 skeletons were discovered in 3 layers. Finds included different types of pottery; beads and jewelry; stone tools including a rock mace; and, more.
Tumulus B is a long mound
36 m long and 8 m wide. It has four chambers. Two accessable from the south. And, Two have no access, are cairns and are small.
The larger chambers. Built from Monolithic slabs. Are known by some as dolmen angoumoisin. Built simply using 4 wall slabs, and a ceiling.
One of the large chambers had skull caps and long bones.
Tumulus C is a circular earthen mound and to some a center point
Diameter of 57 m and a height of 5 m. The mound covers a rectangular platform and smaller circular mound. Inside the chamber they found four skeletons. Including that of an old women. There was pottery and flint tools. And, a natural stone slab floor. The 40x20m platform is on the opposite side. Adult and child burials were found here.
Structure D is a dry stone wall
35m x.5 x 2 m (l x w x h). The wall. Separates Tumuli E and F from the rest of the site.
Tumulus E is double stepped
22m long and 10 m wide. It has two chambers accessible from the right (East). Originally, its believed the chambers were contained in separate circular mounds.
Chamber E1 has a diameter of 3 meters (10 feet), and, is circular. Its foundation is built with 11 blocks set in a trench. More skeletons, pottery and tools were found. Dated. And, its believed to be one of the oldest in the central France area. At 6,000 years.
Chamber E2 is on the northern part of the mound. And, is more square than round. That’s a lot of work
Tumulus F is a trapazoid long mound
72 m long and 12 to 16 m wide. ‘F’ is the largest monument in Bougon. On the left side (west end). It had a pit, where builders could excavate dirt from. The mound has two chambers and 7 different chamberless structures. The pit has since been filled in. Here is some info:
F0 is a circular structure about 2.5 meters in diameter
Built on the south of the mound. Stone built walls, are covered with a large boulder. Creating a steep hemispherical circular structure. It is one of the oldest examples of monumental architecture in Atlantic France. It is similar to some others. Its remains. From about 6700 years ago. Were somewhat unique. Containing children, red clay on the floors, and artifacts. Including pots, bone chisels, and some flint tools.
F1 is a series of stone or chamberless structures to stabilize the monument
F2 is at the north end. Approximately 5×2 m
The rectangular chamber is covered by a 32 ton slab. Believed to be mined 4km away. Inside they found unique jewelry beads, and flint tools.
Listed as a Monument Historique. The Tumulus of Bougon is a significant archaeological, and historical site in France. It is part of the rich prehistoric heritage. Contributing to our understanding of the cultural and social components. Of the people who worked, built and designed in the area during Neolithic times.
Joussaume R., Laporte L.; Scarre C.: Longs tumulus néolithiques et organisation de l’espace dans l’ouest de la France