Located in the Meteora municipality, Theopetra Cave is a limestone cave located in Thessaly, Greece. It is situated on the northeast side of a limestone rock formation that is 3 km (2 mi) south of Kalambaka. The site has become increasingly important as human presence is attributed to all periods of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and beyond. Bridging the pleistocene gap with the holocene.
For at least 50,000 years, the cave has radiocarbon evidence that humans were around and inside this cave. To answer the questions about paleolithic Thessaly, archaeologist Kyparissi-Apostolika, begain digging in the cave, in 1987.
Comprising of palaeolithic as well as mesolithic and neolithic cultural remains, Theopetra cave contains one of the longest archaeological sequences in Greece. Records have shown important palaeoenvironmental data based on sedimentary features and botanical remains. It is one hell of a history information source.
Significant findings include the man-made stone wall that is still standing today, which was built in approximately 21,000 BCE. It is the oldest known example of a man-made structure. During the last ice age. The wall may have been built to protect its residents from cold winds and extreme weather.
Bibliography: Karkanas, Panagiotis; White, Dustin; Lane, Christine S.; Stringer, Chris; Davies, William; Cullen, Victoria L.; Smith, Victoria C.; Ntinou, Maria; Tsartsidou, Georgia; Kyparissi-Apostolika, Nina (June 2015). “Tephra correlations and climatic events between the MIS6/5 transition and the beginning of MIS3 in Theopetra Cave, central Greece”. Quaternary Science Reviews. 118: 170–181. Bibcode:2015QSRv..118..170K. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.05.027.
Facorellis, Yorgos; Kyparissi-Apostolika, Nina; Maniatis, Yannis (2001). “The Cave of Theopetra, Kalambaka: Radiocarbon Evidence for 50,000 Years of Human Presence”. Radiocarbon. 43 (2B): 1029–1048. doi:10.1017/S0033822200041692. S2CID59415809.