Neolithic Site: El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth), Sonora, Mexico

University of Arizona researchers preciously found El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth’) not that long ago, in 2007. Yet it is recognized for a huge amount of reasons. It is the first discovery of humans and gomphotheres in North America. The radiocarbon dating also makes it, along with ‘Aubrey site’, in north Texas, the oldest Clovis site in North America.

Gomphotheres were previously undiscovered in North America


El fin del mundo (or ‘End of the earth’) allows us to consider various topics, such as:
-environmental change;
-paleoindian subsistence and regional interaction;
-the role that humans may have played in the extinction of Pleistocene fauna; and,
-how early ancestors adapted to the region, and went beyond with the use of lithic raw material to manufacture different types of points.

Harlans ground sloth

Many animals, from the very large to the odd lived during the ice age. Harlan’s Ground Sloth seems to be one of the most bizarre animals from that era. A mix of large and odd, these large, furry animals are related to modern sloths, armadillos, and anteaters. Unlike its smaller modern cousin, Harlan’s ground sloths could be as tall as modern elephants and as heavy as a small car.

Sheer size was not the only odd part of a Harlan’s ground sloth. These giants were bulky, with short necks, powerful chests, and massive jaws. The sloth also had three claws per hand for digging, grabbing, or defending themselves. Just like armored armadillos today, the sloth had a protective coat of rough, brown fur, with nickel-sized bone plates underneath their skin. Scientists called this the “dermal ossicles” or bone skin

Ground sloths migrated to North America during the ice age. They spent their lives wondering open-grasslands with water sources, like rivers and lakes. Using its stubby snout and sense of smell, the sloth may have found and eat grasses, shrubs, and plants with flowers. The need for water sources may have brought Harlan’s Ground Sloths to New Mexico and southern US during the ice age. Before the sand dunes existed, a giant lake called Lake Otero filled the area. It provided a water source that attracted many ice age animals, including Harlan’s Ground Sloths.

Today on the old dried lakebed of Lake Otero or Alkali Flat, New Mexico, Harlan’s Ground Sloths left clues that they were here. Many fossilized footprints are visible. They had crescent shaped footprints. Their back feet twisted inward when they walked. This made them walk slowly, almost like waddling. These large strong slow moving animals became easy targets for daring predators such as Paleo-Human hunters.

The Giant ground sloth of course does not live today. Around 10,000 years ago, the large ice age animals died out. Scientists still debate why the larger animals disappeared. The Harlan ground sloth is reminder of a time long past however with modern technology maybe one day could be brought back.

Neolithic Architecture: Kimmswick Bone Bed, Jefferson County Missouri

Neolithic Site 32km SW of St. Louis. In upper Mississippi valley, 2.5km west of Mississippi River, at confluence of 4 North American drainage basins (upper Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee rivers). Where 30% of American contiguous land mass is drained.
Mastodon remains were identified, including butchering and human presence.
Laurentide ice sheet appears to have reach its max about 350km to east. By time of occupation (estimate, early neolithic), glacier tied 800km north (present day upper Great Lakes basin). The site was probably situated in mixed deciduous (oak, hickory) forest, mixed with prairie grasses. 127meters above sea level. The sites axis is oriented southwest to northwest, 2300 square meters. There is a 20m high limestone bluff in the north. With unobstructed views of the Mississippi River south east, and rock creek valleys to the south and west.
Founded by French/Creole fur trader, and St. Louis co-founder Pierre Chouteu in 1790s. The earliest known excevations were in 1839, by Albert Koch. Who recovered a American Mastodon (mammut americanum) for display at his St. Louis museum. Numerous others began excavation including businessmen who opened a museum at the site around 1900. And, Smithsonium archaeologists who couldn’t declare what was cultural remains, and introduced there after. Modern era of professional investigation began in 1970s, when government bought, in preparation to convert the mastodon state historic site.
7 discrete strata were identified including extinct and entact large mammals: mastodon, long nosed peccary and Harlans ground sloth. Numerous species of small vertebrates, and a large fire pit with Harlans ground sloth.
Though relatively few artifacts were recovered, apart from mastodon, presence of diverse abundant animal species,(white tail, fish, amphibians, reptiles (turtles, birds, small mammals), suggests site was adaptable to environmental conditions.

kimmswick-bone-bed
albert-koch-and-mastodon-mammut-americanum
one-of-few-know-clovis-points-unearthed-from-site-1900
historical-compilation
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1980-excevations.-site-may-have-been-swampy-and-trapped-mastodons-and-preserved-bones
kimmswick-clovis-points-dating-to-early-neolithic
mastodon-rib-with-clovis-point-right-thru-unearthed-in-1980

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Neolithic Sites: Bonfire Shelter

Bonfire Shelter
Ariel photograph of canyon
Partially enclosed entrance before human occupation a huge portion of canyons cliff-face collapsed
1st major excavation was 63 and 64′
its a semi-circular cave vault with buffalo smashing ground on other side
Excavations here were deeper than previously accepted ones (6m)
Student points at section of the three principal stratigraphic deposits about 12000-1000bc
bones around limestone anvil or butchers block
10,000 BC charcoil and fireplace hearths
burned montell dart points
basketry and sandal fragments from zone 3
Bison horn
typical late archaic castroville and montell points
crude biface and flake scrapers
Large rockshelter hidden behind massive roof fall and desecrated bison skeletons

Meadowcroft rockshelter or sand stone re-entrant

MCRS(or SSRE) could be one of the longest occupational sequences in North America, dating to around 15,000 bc. It is in Washington county, Pennsylviania. It was discovered in 1955 by landman/farmer Albert Miller. He immediately contacted the university (university of Pittsburgh), and in 1970 236 sites were excavated.

It is located “High and Dry,” 15m above stream from Cross Creek, a tributary of the Ohio river. *Geological terms are “Sandstone Re-entrant,” or rock shelter (common English). These are overhangs of erosion resistant rock, with further underlays of less resistant presently eroded rock.

Over 20,000 artifacts were uncovered (predominantly flaked stone). Including 2 million animals or plants from 140 identifiable species.

MCRS or SSRe-nt
“Old Fashioned” rabbit roast
MCRS(or SSRE)
Excavation Map
Stratigraphic Profile
Basket Rim or Wall fabrics
Millar Complex Lithic Technologies *also Texas, Virginia and Maryland
Present day location

Poem about the Narch/Na

Poem about the NArch/NA
Ancient Fables and Folklore
A cloak as valuable as wizardry. Sage.
Warm Ancient themes
Half moons
Stone Masonry and archways
A round or curved log
Ancient, Indigenous and multi-cultural Mythology
Sun and Stars
Neolithic Arch is an ancestral tradition and celebration of proactive work, building and ecology.
Knowledge of critters, insects and the outdoors. Being warm. Living in style.
In wake of these challenging and chaotic times
As proactive measures, we have re-branded as the Neolithic Arch.
Neolithic Arch is the common purpose and collective spirit.
It also commemorates icon-ism and our forebears true meaning.
Chaos can create change
Welcome to your Neolithic Arch.