Established during the neolithic period. One of the largest archaeological sites on Crete, is Knossos. What some say is also called Europe’s oldest city.

A ancient Greek capital of the legendary king Minos. Is Knossos, it was the principal center of the Minoan culture. Established during the neolithic age. Is one of the earliest ancient neolithic civilizations of Greece. Its site stands on a knoll. Between two streams, and is located about 5 miles (8 km) below Crete’s northern coast.

Like many of the other Greek islands. Early neolithic settlers came over from mostly Anatolia in the 7th and 8th millennium BC. They firmly established an agricultural society based on wheat and livestock raising. In a span of just 6000 years, Knossos became a Greek administrative center, and the capital of Cretes regions within its jurisdiction.

Neolithic period
Neolithic remains at Crete are prolific. They are found in caves, rock shelters, old houses, and settlements. Because of the thickness of layers below Knossoses main site. It is believed they probably started building in the area more than 9000 years ago. Earliest settlers attest to cloth-making, tool making, farming, fishing, hunting and more. Archaeologists have found fine ground axe and mace heads of colored stone: greenstone, serpentine, diorite even jadeite (jade). As well as local obsidian knives and arrowheads. Like other Greek establishments. Art was significant. Among the other small items were a large number of animal and human figurines, including nude sitting or standing women. Attributing to the neolithic mother goddess and figurines in general to religion.

Lion Goddess
Among the items found in Knossos is a depiction of a goddess flanked by two lions. It appears in many other images, and artistry around the site.

Early neolithic: families and homes
From scientific studies, we have take on 9000–8000 years ago. A hamlet of 25–50 persons begin at the location of the central court. They lived in wattle and daub huts, kept animals, and grew crops. Most of the huts, consisting of several families. They begin to practice exogamy (custom of marrying outside a community, tribe or clan). Lived in close quarters, and worked hard, with a high degree of intimacy. It was somewhat no-madic. They hiked around, hunted, fished, mined and traded when others. That may have became trapped on, or were traveling to or around the island. And, again building and techniques evolved. Towards the end of this period. They were in one or two room square houses of mud brick walls. Using the recycled, or nearby stone, clay and mud. The inner walls had early log and stone engineering with neolithic drywall. Many of the roofs were flat, composed of mud over branches. And, the residents dug hearths at various locations.

7000-6000 years ago: The settlement of the middle Neolithic
As families and populations increased. So begin what was presumably more family private homes. Around this period population reached 500-1000 people. Building remained constant, ever improving. Windows and doors were timbered, hearth designed improved, and there were even proper cabinets and beds. Under the palace the Knossos neolithic built a great house. A 1100 sq foot stone building with 5 rooms. Because of its thick 1 meter (3.28 feet) stone walls most believe a 2nd story was present. The presence of its age and size suggest it was not likely a private residence. But one for public or community use and sharing.

4500 years ago begins the late neolithic and/or early Minoan period
Implying greater wealth and social concentration of authority, politics and faith. It is believed that the first Cretan palaces were built soon after 2000 BC. Other than Knossos, neolithic palace sites included Malia, Phaestos and Zakro. It was a sharp break from the traditional neolithic village system. Professors have suggested the new period followed eastern models. Like those at Ugarit on the Syrian coast, and Mari on the upper Euphrates. All the palaces had large central courtyards. Living quarters, storage rooms and administrative centers were positioned around. They also had working quarters for skilled craftsmen: blacksmith, knappers, bakers, farmers; labourers; artists and more. Since metallurgy had begin, it allowed a more structured commercialization of barter and trade. Kind of like today. They made and traded for tin, copper and stone, created awesome glazed pottery, made gold jewelry and even engraved things. From this period. Hieroglyphic scripts were found, and trade with Egyptians was undertaken. Knossos produced and commercialized fine polychrome pottery during this period. It was around 1720 BC a destructive earthquake leveled parts of Knossos. Thereafter, it was rebuilt stronger with stairs, and greater safety elements.

Did you know? Greek mythology stated Knosso palace was designed with such complexity. That no one placed in it could ever find its exit. King Minos commissoned famed architect Dedalos. He arranged with Dedalos to never leave the site so he would not revealed its design and plans to anyone.

Metallurgy, completion of a palace and culture. Separated the end of Knossoses neolithic age
Covering three acres with its main building and five acres when separate out-buildings. The palace at Knossos was big. It had bathrooms, toilets and a drainage system.
Stores that occupied sixteen rooms. For barter and trade, they had large storage jars up to five feet tall. Oil, wool, wine, grain and other things were stored here. Holding about 400 spectators. A theatre was found. Women were also praised. They had style and fashion, and the wine flew abundantly. It was a neolithic age and Minoan period epicenter.
Building techniques at Knossos continued typical. The foundations and lower course were stonework with the whole built on a timber framework of beams and pillars. The main structure was built of large, unbaked bricks. The roof was flat with a thick layer of clay over brushwood.
Chambers and corridors were often decorated with frescoes showing scenes from everyday life. Possessions, relationships and wildlife. Outside of double headed axes (labrys); and bulls, warfare and violence was conspicuously absent here. In Knossos, during the neolithic age and Minoan period would have been a great time.

Unfortunately, some time after about 1400 BC, what researchers called the “Last Palace” of Knossos. Was destroyed by a fire of uncertain origin. Fires destroyed many other Cretan settlements at this time. Knossos was reduced henceforth to the status of a mere town. The political focus of the Aegean world shifted to Mycenaeans on the Greek mainland. Knossos continued to be inhabited through the subsequent centuries, though on a much-reduced scale. Be sure to check it out, and some more neolithic architecture today.

Crete is roughly the shape of Long Island; lies half way between Peloponnes and north Africa; and, with steep mountains, became popular in Neolithic times

Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and organic remains, offers some dates on the neolithic history of Crete. It is believed the neolithic period on Crete lasted from about 6800 to 3200BC. About 9000 or 8000 years ago, neolithic people that were farmers, with sheep, goat, and grains arrived on the island and were able to establish small settlements. Using local obsidian, and clay. They farmed, made advanced stone tools and sophisticated pottery.

Cretes early civilization did not know metallurgy yet. Many of the weapons, farming tools and art, were of obsidian, bones or clay and stone. Vindicating statuses, they shared and enjoyed small primitive carvings representing women. Different sculptures and pieces have been found on diverse places all over the island. Sharing an enjoyment, and perhaps even worship of the goddess of fertility. Too many, Crete was an advancement from the other Greek neolithic islands. Probably because it was closer to the eastern regions of Anatolia, Cilicie, and even Palestine. Included with Mochlos and Pseira. Some of the first ports, could have been established on Crete. Because of there location. Trade and commercializations would have been bigger.

Houses and neolithic evolution
Beginning with huts made of wooden pickets and hard pack ground surface. By the middle to late neolithic, stony walls and stronger beams became the commonplace. And, houses were now arranged with several rooms. Techniques of construction evolved, using bricks, stones, cobs; beautiful logs and masonry. Thru the end of the neolithic period, the population had significantly increased, and good looking architecture became an attraction.

Megafauna of Crete: Ice age, the pleistocene, & hunter gathers
Before neolithic times, and during the pleistocene. Native fauna of Crete included many. There was the pygmy hippo, pygmy elephant (paleoloxodon chaniensis), and dwarf deer (praemegaceros cretensis). Giant mouse (kritimys catreus); and insectivores; as well as, badger, beech marten and lutrogale cretensis. A kind of terrestrial otter. Instead of the larger carnivores, there was the almost flightless cretan owl. It was the apex predator. Most of these animals died out at the end of the last ice-age. It is believed hunter/gather humans played a significant part in this extinction. And, there knowledge, stories and location would have attracted others here.

Photo of a giant mouse’s mandibles, only its 1st and 2nd molars are visable

Did you know? In 2008 and 2009, in South Crete, scientists excavated, what they believed to be stone tools at least 130,000 years old. Which was a sensational discovery since most believed the earliest sea crossing was thought to occur around 12,000bc. The stone tools found in this, the Plakias region, included hand axes of the Acheulean type, that were made from quartz. It is now believed pre-homo sapiens or hominids crossed from Africa to Crete on rafts. And, currently, scholars are debating even later dated artifacts.

Undeciphered ‘Linear A’ script; Minoans, metallurgy; post neolithic natural disasters; and, disruption
Neolithic art and cultural influences are believed to originate and influence Crete from Egypt, the Cyclades (Greek islands) and middle east. Records were actually found on the island in a written undeciphered script known as ‘Linear A”. In combination with these scripts, archaeological records indicate Cretes superb palaces, houses, roads, paintings and sculptures. All of which originated in the neolithic period. During this time, main settlements of Knossos and Trapeza became well known. Crete was the center of Europes most ancient civilizations. And, during the late neolithic age, as commercialization and trade kept increasing. Metallurgy became more common. A peoples and culture called the Minoans, begin establishing themselves with even greater pottery, architecture, and style. Unfortunately, it was a earthquake around 1600bc; and, volcanic eruption in 1500bc. Followed by invasion, looting and fires from mainland Greeks, and others. That was there prehistoric downfall. Be sure to check out Crete, and some more neolithic architecture today.

Sources include: the atlantic, made in crete, wikipedia and google.

Chalcopyrite was the mineral upon which copper & bronze age civilizations were built

Comes from the Greek words ‘chalkos’ and ‘pyrites’, which respectively mean ‘copper’ and ‘striking’. Chalcopyrite was the mineral upon which copper and bronze Age civilizations were built. Within the last century, it has also became the mineral foundation for our modern electrical age. Our primary source of copper, chalcopyrite’s name. With its metallic luster and bright golden color. It can fool people into thinking it really is gold. It is actually one of two minerals, the other being pyrite, that can trick people into thinking it is gold.

Chalcopyrite, gold and pyrite confusion
Pyrite and gold are the only natural materials that are easily confused with chalcopyrite. The three can be distinguished by their, colour and tone; hardness and response to stress.

At first glance, pyrite and chalcopyrite are similar color as well as shiny metallic luster. Being said, there hardness is different. Chalcopyrite can be scratched by a nail and is softer. While pyrite will not let you dig a nail into its surface.
The two minerals also usually occur in different forms. Pyrite is most often found as crystal masses that exhibit obvious at planes and cubic shapes. Although chalcopyrite can occur as crystals, it most often occurs as masses that lack flat planes or obvious geometric shapes.

Gold has much been confused with massive chalcopyrite, even deeming the name ‘Fool’s Gold’. However, chalcopyrite’s color and brittle nature make it different than gold. Different than golds buttery yellow. Chalcopyrite has a brassy yellow color. Gold is very ductile and will form under pressure, while chalcopyrite is brittle and will break if struck. Also, chalcopyrite exhibits iridescent tarnish that does not occur in gold.

Earth and the geological importance of chalcopyrite
Found in almost all sulfide deposits, chalcopyrite is easily the most widespread copper-bearing mineral. It usually occurs in medium-temperature and high- temperature hydrothermal veins of igneous rocks or metamorphosed igneous rocks. Some economic chalcopyrite deposits form as hydrothermal fluids dissolve copper from igneous rocks and then precipitate it in surrounding contact-metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Chalcopyrite is most often found with pyrite and other sulfide minerals, as well as sphalerite, galena, dolomite, tourmaline or quartz. When it oxidizes, it can form a number of other minerals including as malachite, azurite, and cuprite.

Earth and the economic importance of chalcopyrite
Having a relatively low copper yield (only 25% of its atoms are copper) keeps the pencil pushers, miners and machinery manufactures busy. Unlike chalcocite and cuprite (both with 67% yields), or bornite and covellite (that have 50% yields) chalcopyrites copper yields are relatively low. However, including now and throughout history, chalcopyrite is much more abundant than the other copper-bearing minerals. And, it is far more widely distributed.

Copper was the first known metal to be widely used, and for over six thousand years copper mining has remained. Copper is easily worked and can be mixed with zinc to make brass, or with tin to make bronze. Before people learned to smelt iron, copper and bronze was the most durable, widely worked and economically most important metal. From its earliest civilizations to the Roman era. Human strength revolved around the control of copper.
More recently, in distributing electricity. Copper’s high conductivity, softness, and resistance to corrosion, have given it a critical role. It is easily worked, and not too hard to find as well.

Bats are small, flying mammals from the order Chiroptera.

Of the many species found in north American states and Canadian provinces, almost all are insectivores that feed on vast numbers of night-flying insects. This makes them an important part of the ecological community.
In most cases, bats don’t cause problems for home, business owners or farmers. That is because of their nocturnal habits, you will rarely see them. And, because they eat insects, they also provide some control of insect pests in the landscape.

Identification and Biology
Bats frequently use man-made structures such as attics, barns, or bat boxes for roosting sites. Some of the more common species like brown bat you will most likely will find in urban areas.
Bats live 5 to 30 years depending on the species but are among the slowest reproducers for their size of any mammal. For example, the little brown bat, the most frequent user of man made bat habitats, can live for 3 decades with the female giving birth to 1 pup per year.
Problems can occur when migrating bats roost in buildings, usually during warmer months. Their droppings can accumulate, they can make noise, and some people are uncomfortable. Bats can also transmit diseases. Rabies and flues transmitted from droppings being a special concern.

Bats have fir, and provide there young with milk
As mammals, in spring, female bats form colonies to give birth and rear young. Young bats develop rapidly, and most are able to fly within a month or two after birth. Generally males and females with young will roost separately, but in late summer or fall, males might join the colony. In the winter when insects are scarce. Bats might migrate to warmer areas or previous hibernation roosts.

Bats are excellent flyers and navigate using echolocation
During the night, they sense insects, and are able to catch them in flight. Some people install bat homes because they think bats eat and control insect populations like mosquitos.

Public Health Concerns: Bats transmit diseases
Bats maybe beneficial but they can carry diseases to humans and other animals. Never handle bats. Do not breath dust from bat droppings, and vaccinate your dogs and cats against rabies.
It is very important to educate others, especially the young, to never to touch a bat, dead or alive.
Bats guano can accumulate, creating odors, attracting, birds and insects.

More information regarding bats and disease prevention is available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Rabies is a viral infection of the central nervous system that causes inflammation of the brain, and sometimes the spinal cord. Once symptoms appear, the
disease is almost always fatal. A rabies exposure requires contact with an open wound, abrasion, or mucous membrane—such as the eyes, nose, or mouth—and a rabid animal’s saliva or nervous tissue. Note that rabid bats rarely bite except in self-defense. If you are bitten. Immediately wash the bite with soap and water, and seek prompt medical advice. Be careful.

Fungas histoplasm camsulatum and the respiritory illness Histoplasmosis
The fungus Histoplasma camsulatum capsulatum causes the respiratory illness histoplasmosis. It occurs naturally in the soil in warm, humid areas, and bat and bird droppings enhance its development. It is mostly bird roasts but can all be attracted by bat guano and droppings.

Bat Parasites
Bat ectoparasites are organisms that feed on other animals and include fleas, flies, true bugs, chiggers, ticks, bed bugs and mites. Most bat parasites can’t survive on other animals, or at least without laying eggs and being near the host like fleas or bedbugs.

Sometimes bats get tired. If they are lying on the ground or out in the open during the day they aren’t always sick. Sometimes they’re tired from long migration nights. Leave them alone for an hour or two. If they are in an area where children or animals might touch them, gently scoop the bat into an open box, wearing leather gloves. Move it to a place where no one can come into contact with it.

Temporary roost inspection and removal tip
Sometimes a colony of bats will show up at a house in the spring or fall. Often this is a migratory colony, and it will move on after a few weeks of rest. If the bats are in an area that can be tolerated, such as an outside eave, then wait a few weeks, and once the bats have left, seal the area, so they can’t return.
If you suspect bats are roosting in your building, you’ll need to carefully look for signs of them.
Bats can squeeze through openings as small as 1/4 inch. Cracks around windows, doors, pipes, electrical wiring, or vents can provide access.

Removal from Dwellings
Its usually the young, lost bats that get caught in peoples homes. A panicked human is probably the worst action, as it can cause the bat to hide.
The best action is to isolating the mammal to a single room, where no pets or family members are present. If possible, open doors and windows to the outside, so the bat can escape on its own. If endeavored, you could try placing a small box or coffee can over the bat, and gently slide a piece of cardboard beneath it. Then you can release it outdoors. Wear leather gloves to avoid being bitten.
Most bats you discover indoors will be dying, but some might be roosting or asleep. During cool weather, bats can become torpid; this reduced activity is due to a lowering of their body temperature. Torpid bats might appear to be sick, dead, bare teeth or hiss. A defensive behavior to ward of potential predators. You can gently scrape a torpid bat into a can or box, cover the can, allow the bat to warm up safety, then release outside.

Excluding Single Bats
Bats can enter through open doors or windows. Other common entry points include chimneys. Place 1/2-inch or smaller welded wire mesh over chimney tops. Try sealing holes that are 1/2 inch or larger in diameter, or cracks that are 1/4 by 1–1/2 inches or larger. You can close openings around plumbing pipes by using steel wool or other suitable material.

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In neolithic Greeces Sesklo culture, the Gorgon masks protruding tongue with boar tusks, puffy cheeks, eyeballs fixed & snakes twisting around her head may have originated

Greece and Sesklo had wonderful clay, great stone and good fuel supply. Because of this, they excelled at pottery, ceramics and thus the neolithic age.
The prehistoric settlement of Sesklo is situated near the modern village of the same name, 15 kilometres to the southwest of Volos. In Thessaly. Excevations here have dated the habitation to pre-pottery neolithic (*about 9000 years ago) to late neolithic age, 4500 BC (or, about 6500 years ago).
The people of Sesklo built their villages on hillsides near fertile valleys, where they were able to grow an abundance of wheat and barley. They kept herds of mainly sheep and goats, although they also had cattle, swine, and dogs.The long habitation of the area is due to the fertile arable soil, the abundance of water and the direct access. It provided, to both the Pelion mountains, and sea of the Gulf of Pagassai. Initially, settlements were discovered in the 19th century, and the first excavations were made by the Greek archaeologist, Christos Tsountas.

Pre-Sesklo aceramic, or, pre-pottery 6800–6500 BC;
The oldest fragments researched at Sesklo place. Show a development of the culture as far back as 7510 BC to 6190 BC. It is known as the proto-Sesklo, pre-Sesklo, or Sesklo aceramic period.
They show an advanced agriculture and a very early use of pottery. For the age, it rivals those documented in the near east. It is believed this early known neolithic culture of Europe, helped spread, inhabit, and establish other early cultures. Such as the ones in other parts of Thessaly and Macedonia.
Initially, at Sesklo, a small settlement of the pre-pottery neolithic was limited to the “citadel”. It consisted of subterranean huts with post walls. During the early neolithic it stretched to the west of the hill and was called Sesklo B and C. It consisted of four sided, one roomed buildings with stone foundations, and mudbrick walls. As life continued into the neolithic. In the free spaces, all kinds of economic and social activities were organized with neighboring households. They enjoyed cooking, pottery making, carving, trading and flintknapping. And things expanded.

6500-5800 BC Early neolithic
In the early period, Sesklos houses were still small. With one or two rooms. Built of wood or mudbrick. Construction techniques later, became more homogeneous and all homes were built of stone foundations and adobe. The first houses with two levels begain. And, were found clearly indicating an intentionally that urbanism existed. The lower levels of proto-Sesklo lacked pottery. But the Sesklo people soon developed very fine-glazed earthenware. They begin decorating it with geometric symbols of red and brown colors. These new types of pottery were incorporated in the early neolithic Sesklo period, and expanded into the middle too.

5800-5300 BC Middle neolithic
During the Middle Neolithic the settlement covered Kastraki hill (“citadel” or Sesklo A), and further (Sesklo B and C). Accommodating 200-300 inhabitants. This middle neolithic is also called Sesklo culture, since it was here that for the first time different cultural achievements were characterized in Thesssaly.

It was then when a denser habitation was observed.
Rectangular buildings with stone foundations, walls of mud-bricks and gable or hipped roofs predominated from this period. It was a main practice of Greek architecture that was neolithic. They usually had one room, on the ground floor, while there was indications of existence of a second storey. Their interior included hearths and constructions for storing goods, and sleeping. The arrangement of the houses at the “citadel” differed from that of the so-called “city”. The “citadel” followed a free-standing arrangement. Homes were at a short distance from each other. While in the “city” they were built one next to the other. Forming clusters at some distance one from one another. In both cases though, the effort to ensure as great building space as possible was manifest. In the “citadel” curvilinear retaining walls were built. It created terraces for buildings on the west slope.
Characteristic painted pottery, red on light brown, continued into the Middle Neolithic. They were unearthed at the “citadel” of Sesklo but it was not found in the “city” of Sesklo. This could be attributed to some economic and social inequality not typical of the society of the Middle Neolithic, but was thought to became more evident towards the end of the Neolithic. When natural disasters, trade routes and metallurgy changed things.

Late neolithic I 5300–4800 BC; &, late neolithic II 4800–4500 BC
At 5000 BC, the neolithic settlement of Sesklo covered an area of approximately 20 hectares (50 acres). It was its peak period, and comprised about 500 to 800 houses with a population estimated to be as large as 5,000 people.
Some professors believe an “Sesklo invasion theory”. Stating that Sesklo culture lasted until around 5000 BC. When it was violently conquered by people of the Dimini culture. The Dimini culture had many similarities, but in this theory is considered different from that found earlier at Sesklo. An alternative theory states, they lived and worked together a number of centuries, before turning on each other.

One thing is for sure. Around 4400 BC this thriving settlement was destroyed by an earthquake, followed by fire. It was the case with other Thessalian settlements. Because of the fire. For approximately 500 years, it left behind abandoned ruins. Among them was a pottery workshop. Sealed off for centuries, was some of the finest specimens of pottery, figurines; stone industry pieces; seals; and, jewellery from the period.
After this, only the “citadel” of Sesklo was re-inhabited. At its highest spot, a large megaroid house was built, with open porch and two closed rooms around 152 square meters (around 500 square feet). This building became the most important of the settlement and was surrounded by stone enclosures. Similarly to those of neighbouring Dimini. Around it, other homes and shops were built.

Growth of pottery was growth of neolithic cultures
Evolution and growth of culture was again what neolithic Greece, and Sesklos became successful at. During the early and mid neolithic, using pottery and art, they were able to store, trade and barter tools and supplies better, and with style. While the neolithic period was going on. Toward the end, ceramic decorations evolved to flame motifs. Pottery of this “classic” Sesklo style also was used in Western Macedonia, as found at Serbia and some others. Found in the near eastern regions. There were many similarities between Asia minor pottery and early Greek neolithic pottery. It has been acknowledged Sesklo settlers could have migrated from Asia Minor (and vice versa). However, such similarities seem to exist among all early pottery found in near eastern regions. And, Asia minor vessels had a few differences. The repertoire of shapes is not very different, but they seem to be deeper than Thessalian counterparts.
Differentiating from Anatolian settlements. Shallow, slightly open bowls are characteristic of the Sesklo culture. The earliest appearance of figurines is completely different as well. One significant characteristic of this culture is the abundance of women statuettes, often pregnant. It was probably connected to the widely hypothesized theory Gorgons, and prehistoric fertility cults. Throughout many millennia, these sculptures of women were present in all the Balkan cultures and most of the Danube civilizations.

It is no doubt that Sesklo culture is crucial in the expansion of the Neolithic into Europe. Dating and research points to the influence of Sesklo culture on both the Karanovo (Bulgaria) and Körös (central Europe) cultures, as well as, Danube Serbia. It is debatable though, that a largely independent indigenous development of Greek neolithic settlements was in place. At some points they probably had to work for and against each other. Trading, bartering, co-operating, working with weather and whatever systems were in place. One things for sure, if protruding tongues, tusks, puffy cheeks, snake hair and glazing eyeballs that turned others to stone was on your side. You sure wouldn’t have messed with it.

Bibliography: The Language of the Goddess, February 1, 2001 by Marija Gimbutas (Author), Joseph Campbell (Author) ISBN-10: ‎ 0500282498, ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0500282496; Wikipedia; &, Foundation of the Hellenic world in Greece.

Tell es-Sultan is Jericho. Yeriẖo in hebrew, ʼArīḥā in arab, or ‘fragrant’ in (english)

Because of its water springs, Tell es Sultan or Jericho was a natural oasis in the desert all could enjoy. North of Dead Sea, and west of Jordan river. It is a Palestinian city in the west bank. The site rises above the wide area of the Jordon valley. Its height upon height, a result of layers upon layers of human habitation and destruction. Dated to about 12,000 years ago. Its site provides great archaeological importance; it shows evidence of the first development of permanent settlements, and thereso, the first steps towards great civilizations.

Around the Ein as Sultan spring, scientists have found remains of circular homes made with mud brick and topped with dome roofs. At this era they probably hadn’t discovered blast pottery, or cermaics yet. They did build, grow plants, and keep animals They collected firewood, artifacts, and made stone tools. As many as 14,000 years ago.

Stone tower
Like many neolithic settlements they begin trading. With it came mining, and constructing stone walls with ditches around them, and to protect the community. This settlement. Complete with its stone tower, was one of the first. At over 25 feet tall.

Many years of destruction and rebuilding
Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of more than 20 successive settlements in Jericho. Including what may have been the first protective wall. Some of the first dates go back 11,000 years. And, to basically the beginning of the holocene cycle, and neolithic era. The Ein es-Sultan (or Jericho spring), would have made Jericho a popular spot for camping, the Natufians (link), and hunter gatherer groups. Because they left behind a significant amount of crescent shaped microlith tools behind. After the droughts and cold cycle of the Younger Dryas. It could have been possible for them to extend the duration of there stay. To what was eventually, a year round settlement and perminant habitation around 11 or 12,000 years ago.

11500 to 8500 years ago, Pre-pottery neolithic
11,500 to 11000 years ago is an estimate when humans built homes at Jericho. Dwelling foundations unearthed at Tell es-Sultan (Jericho). Show circular dwellings were built of clay and straw bricks. Left to dry in the sun, and were plastered together with a mud mortar. Each house measured about 5 metres (16 ft) across, and was roofed with mud-smeared brush. Hearths were located within and/or outside the homes. For wood fired pottery, food, mud plaster manufacturing, breaking rocks or whatever else they needed at the time.
Around 9000 years ago the site became surrounded by a massive stone wall around 12 feet (or, 1.8 meters) high. At the base stood a 28 foot or 8.5 meters high stone tower. Similar to Tell Qaramel in Syria. They are both, one of the oldest towers ever discovered by humans.
Later in Pre-pottery neolithic b. Humans begin expanding the range of domesticated plants, and domesticating sheep. There is debate about cultic practices during this period. Involving plasterization and art decoration of human skulls. Artistically decorated plastered skulls have been found in Tell Ramad, Beisamoun, Kfar Hahoresh, Ain Ghazal and Nahal Hemar.
Based on scientific evidence and study, perhaps 8800 years ago, Tell es Sultan (or Jericho), and an additional surrounding village could have had signs and the results of an invasion. But, they strove on. Architecture styles continued. Men and women, continued constructed rectilinear buildings made of mud bricks on stone foundations. The mudbricks were roughly small bread loaf-shaped, with deep thumb prints to facilitate bonding. No building has been excavated in its entirety though. Layer upon layer, it has been identified that, a courtyard was surrounded by several rooms. Some of the rooms had lime terrazzo floors. And, the courtyards were clay.

As the neolithic age expanded many came thru to Jericho or Tell es Sultan. It probably reached a peak late neolithic or during the bronze age.
Of what was left, early archaeological finds included obsidian, flint tools such as arrowheads, scrapers, axes, sickles, and knives. Dishes and bowls carved from limestone There was some green obsidian from an unidentified source. Loom weights, drills, and spindle whorls where there. Also, the life sized plasterized figures.

Bronze age
By the bronze Age, Jericho may have been a small prominent city. Perhaps around 3700 to 3600 years ago. It had been connected to the rise of ‘the Maryannu people’ in Anatolia and Turkey. They were the class of chariot-using aristocrats. Some archaeologists have claimed ‘the Bronze Age was the most prosperous’ in the history of Jericho. Which could have made makes sense since tin and copper had begun being mined nearby. However they did not have an abundant supply of wood, and new resources like gold and silver from places in Europe, Asia and the Americas that were being continually explored and expanding. And, when Jericho fell around 3500 years ago (or 1500 BC). There is little evidence of any settlements, until something small, a few hundred years after. There after the metal ages, it was continually destroyed and rebuilt, and abandon into and during the iron age. Little remains from the persian and early hellenistic periods. When a bunch of different kings, queens, empires and rulers came and fought for control of the area. Its considerably less interesting, then its first establishment and growth during the great neolithic era.

Sources: wikipedia
“Jericho” (, Encyclopædia Britannica