Neolithic Architecture: Skara Brae

On the largest island, of Orkneys, in Scotland, are 10 homes, made of earth dammed flagstone.
Included are stone hearths, beds, and cupboards. Because of the preservation of earth dammed flagstone, It is still one of Europes most complete Neolithic villages. They even had stone sewers that took water to and from the ocean.


Discovery:
Causing damage and over 200 known deaths, in 1850 a storm uncovered Skara Brae. Owners of the property discovered four houses but abandoned the project 18 years later. Eventually the site was raided, in 1913 by a group who took away unknown artifacts. In 1924, a storm swept away one of the houses, and it was decided in 1927, that the University of Edinburghs must properly investigate this site.


The houses were basically pit houses (sunk into mounds), with protection from rain. They were about 430 square feet, with stone hearths for heating and cooking. Given there remote location, it was not known what they burned (seaweed, driftwood, waste, peat, cattle, sheep, fishbones, everything?) Though comfy, it would have been hard to have more than 50 people there.


In 1972, the university determined the site was occupied from around 3200 BC to 2500 BC, they unearthed grains, ivory pins, killer whale teeth, walrus ivory, carving, body paints, neolithic weavings and more. There have been all kinds of theories about the people there.
Historical environment Scotlands, “Statement of Significance” for the site sums it up well and is:
The monuments at the heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae proclaim the triumphs of the human spirit in early ages and isolated places. They were approximately contemporary with the mastabas of the archaic period of Egypt (first and second dynasties), the brick temples of Sumeria, and the first cities of the Harappa culture in India, and a century or two earlier than the Golden Age of China. Unusually fine for their early date, and with a remarkably rich survival of evidence, these sites stand as a visible symbol of the achievements of early peoples away from the traditional centres of Civilizations.

Including in theories of who lived at Skara Brae, are popular theories of magicians, and a low wizards road to additional sites in southern England. Here’s to civilizations!

Harlans ground sloth

Many animals, from the very large to the odd lived during the ice age. Harlan’s Ground Sloth seems to be one of the most bizarre animals from that era. A mix of large and odd, these large, furry animals are related to modern sloths, armadillos, and anteaters. Unlike its smaller modern cousin, Harlan’s ground sloths could be as tall as modern elephants and as heavy as a small car.

Sheer size was not the only odd part of a Harlan’s ground sloth. These giants were bulky, with short necks, powerful chests, and massive jaws. The sloth also had three claws per hand for digging, grabbing, or defending themselves. Just like armored armadillos today, the sloth had a protective coat of rough, brown fur, with nickel-sized bone plates underneath their skin. Scientists called this the “dermal ossicles” or bone skin

Ground sloths migrated to North America during the ice age. They spent their lives wondering open-grasslands with water sources, like rivers and lakes. Using its stubby snout and sense of smell, the sloth may have found and eat grasses, shrubs, and plants with flowers. The need for water sources may have brought Harlan’s Ground Sloths to New Mexico and southern US during the ice age. Before the sand dunes existed, a giant lake called Lake Otero filled the area. It provided a water source that attracted many ice age animals, including Harlan’s Ground Sloths.

Today on the old dried lakebed of Lake Otero or Alkali Flat, New Mexico, Harlan’s Ground Sloths left clues that they were here. Many fossilized footprints are visible. They had crescent shaped footprints. Their back feet twisted inward when they walked. This made them walk slowly, almost like waddling. These large strong slow moving animals became easy targets for daring predators such as Paleo-Human hunters.

The Giant ground sloth of course does not live today. Around 10,000 years ago, the large ice age animals died out. Scientists still debate why the larger animals disappeared. The Harlan ground sloth is reminder of a time long past however with modern technology maybe one day could be brought back.

Neolithic Architecture Daub: Obermeilen, and Robenhausen sites; Zurichsee, Bodensee, Wauwilwemoos lakes, Switzerland

During 1853-54, prolonged drought cause water in alpine lakes to drop 1 foot below lowest recorded levels.
In winter 54’, men began to begin a “land reclamation project.”

They uncovered a lake village.
First of hundreds in alpine Europe.

An enormous amount of building material preserved: remnants of wooden frames, plank floors, wattle and white walls, with thatched roofs.

So much, that dendrochronology, (tree ring dating), provided year by year site histories, firmly identifying the earliest villages on Zurichsee , Bodensee, Wauwilwemoos lakes (more than 5000 years old).

Neolithic villagers, continued to live by the lakes for the next 3 millennia. In fact, the preserved material remains two cultural transitions: from seasonal foraging, to sedentary agriculture, and from stone tools to the use of bronze.

Preservation of organic material from these settlements was extraordinary. Artifacts from almost every aspect of everyday life in Neolithic Europe survived. The lake dwellers relied heavily on wood. Besides using it for there houses, and dugout canoes, they made wooden bowls, spoons, and ladels, chisels, hooks, and knife handles; bows and clubs; and, loom parts. They also used animal bones, teeth, tusks and antlers, to make beds needles, pins, awls, chisels, saws, arrowheads, handles for stone axes, and at least one fish hook. They made chipped and ground stone tools, and at some sites, they made pottery.

The list of plant remains gives some idea of the wealth of remains from these sites. List of plants include: wheat, barley, millet; peas, apples, pears, plums, sloes, raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries; dog rose, elder and bilberry; and, caraway seeds, beech nuts, hickory nuts and water chestnuts; Even fava beans, which the villagers may have grown. Rarely preserved on European sites, providing particularly interesting cultural information. Flax and opium poppies were also found at the sites.

Did you know 3/4 of weight of poppy seed is its oil, and that besides its use in bread, and pain relief, raw oil can be used to burn in lamps.

Lithic Technolgies

Lithic tech are stones make up of minute crystals that can only be seen with a microscope know as cryptocrystalline. These and conchoidal fractures make up lithic technology. Conchoidal fractures are described as smooth, curved breaks from the base stone. Stones that have both of these characteristics allow for flakes that are big and sharp enough for a variety of tools to be made.

Concepts and musings of a anthropological kind 1

Neolithic Architecture: Saltville, Smyth County, Virginia

Studied 2 centuries, yet little got published. Located in western Smyth county, Virginia. Within Saltville valley about 1.3km south of north branch, Holston river (major drainage system of SW Virginia).

In 1782, Colonel Arther Campbell mentioned bones of an uncommon size in a letter to Thomas Jefferson.

5 identifiable artifacts included: Sandstone knives, a triangular stone, and putative chert tool.

One of the oldest layers contained a “concretion” (putatively bound together by congealed animal fat). Which was probably a mastodon butcher zone.

Outside of this, because of paucity, very little said about human life-way. Other than probably processing the extinct critters, (mastodon, mammoth, and musk ox), Saltville was probably like a puzzle piece to much larger picture.

Controversial Pre-Narches
Flooded river helped perserve plant/animal remains including shales, siltstones, sandstone &limestone geo formations
Saltville Site – Vindicated use of single Mastodon
Saltville River, or Channel Flooded and sediments filled abutted parts of this ancient channel
Sandstone rocks thought to have been butchering axes or knifes for mastodon (mammut americanum)
Mammoth Tooth (bottom), and femur tool of the musk ox (bootherium bombifrons)
Musk Ox butchering tool
Mastodon tusk segments
More bone tools, probably a musk ox

Turkeys Neolithic Architecture

Çatalhöyük is in southern Anatolia, and existed from 7100 BC to 5700 BC. It flourished around 7000 BC. Much is located overlooking the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium). Approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan.
There is also a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east.
The prehistoric settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age.
A channel of the Çarşamba River once flowed between the settlements.
They were built on alluvial clay which made it a favorable for early agriculture.

Neolithic Home 1

About 7300 BC
Neolithic Hunters Attacking an Auroch 7300BC

Göbekli Tepe is a Neolithic architecture site near the city of Şanlıurfa in Southeastern Anatolia.
The tell or artificial mounds had heights of 15 m (50 ft) and were about 300 m (1,000 ft) in diameter. They included two phases of use, believed to be of social and ritual nature. There oldest layers date to around 9000 BCE, and younger, verified radiocarbon dating to between 8300 and 7400 BCE.

Gobekli Tepe (Potbelly Hill) Neolithic Site Turkey 9000-7000bc
Statue of Wild Boar Gobekli Tepe 9000bc
Gobekli Tepe Bull Fox Crane Art 9100-8600BC
Gobekli Tepe Piller Animal Sculpture 9000BC

Ideas for a modern, earthly, planetary business: narrate, invest, copy.

Neolithic Arch represents and encourages the best interest, and goals that pre-empt any successful business. Maximizing skill sets, doing less with more; minimizing costs, while maximizing profits; and environmentally pioneering. It should be the goal of any earthly, planetary business. So whats the delay on our approach as the fundamental leader? Included are some suggestions, that help with that leadership and dynamic change. Instead of doctrinal punch outs, accept the reality modern narration ignores. Rather than investing in tech and real estate. Invest in pest control, chimney cleaning, and log cabin building. And, while copying each other, and finding new ways to identify the same thing, are cool for a bit. Keep a majority of proprietary information in house. These ideas represent power, are more along the lines of concurring fate and destiny, and that are neolithic.
Modern narration needs to drop the hype beasts. Accept and gain momentum using pest control, chimney cleaning, and log cabin buildings 12000 year charge. Using doctrinal punch outs, narration can ignore the blunt realities: intelligence is racism, and that hereditary behaviourism is discrediting. So why the duality? Rich white people, thought it was a great return on investment, in Indonesia, as a beach surf spot, in 2004. Until a tidal wave hit, killing nearly 200,000. What’s stopping progressives from building biogeodesic domes to stop natural disasters; cancerous sunshine; air pollution; and, rain, tidal waves, and flooding? There billions saved in maintenance, health care and addiction. When everyone has a safe place, and is on the same page. Its not discrediting, or racist. It also developed something nationally iconic to statute our people and the state of environment. Narration too often unwreckagnizes fate, and accepts untruths, which can be far worse. Drop the sexist, racist hype, be like Narch and adopt a more realistic perspective.
Instead of investing entirely in tech and real estate. Invest in millennia old services, such as the Neolithic Arches. The market consumer invests so heavily in two areas. Covid hits and wallop. We have the greatest debt of all time, including unprecedented inflation. Its like a 1987, West Edmonton Mall business meeting, over and over again. “Do we need another arcade game, or amusement ride?” Consumers kept investing in similar technology, but are we better off? A catastrophe like Covid19 helped the rich get young Canadians more unprepared for 100s of generations. Comparing, millennia old services. They require little costs, not a lot of skills, are mostly face to face, and people are happier. Don’t invest too much in tech and real estate. Because they don’t provide a accurate estimate to life and life worthiness.
Rather than copying each other, and find new ways to identity the same thing. Keep proprietary ideas and technology in house. Examples include facebooks cellphone messenger software, vs the letter mail. How bad is it, when your cellphone, is mostly made in China. For $28 dollars, then repackaged for hundreds more. It’s similarly costing to a chimney sweep, and cords of wood; custom built log picnic table; or, annual pest control protection plan. It seems like the real winners are people that don’t talk face to face anymore, with robots, or are involved in the global supply chain. Lap after lap, rather than science fictionate, celebrate and annunciate whats proprietary and natural. Its a better deal than going to the mall, over and over again, for the same thing in different packaging. Repititon, and automation are brainwashing us.
Less is more, more skill sets; less costs; more profits; protecting the environment and saving the planet. Fate, destiny, and 12,000 years progressiveness represent the goals best of any business. Its the reason NA will never get hit. Instead of, think sensible, and look thru history. Rather than mundanely trapping people, using racisms and fake behaviourists. Modernize, and build a biogeodesic dome. Don’t totally invest in short term (tech and real estate). Go millennial old services. And, when spying and copying each other, keep a majority of proprietary information in house. Applying these suggestions, maybe one day you’ll be as successful as Narch. If not, take your pick! There’s always another amusement ride or arcade machine. Best of luck!