Harlans ground sloth

Many animals, from the very large to the odd lived during the ice age. Harlan’s Ground Sloth seems to be one of the most bizarre animals from that era. A mix of large and odd, these large, furry animals are related to modern sloths, armadillos, and anteaters. Unlike its smaller modern cousin, Harlan’s ground sloths could be as tall as modern elephants and as heavy as a small car.

Sheer size was not the only odd part of a Harlan’s ground sloth. These giants were bulky, with short necks, powerful chests, and massive jaws. The sloth also had three claws per hand for digging, grabbing, or defending themselves. Just like armored armadillos today, the sloth had a protective coat of rough, brown fur, with nickel-sized bone plates underneath their skin. Scientists called this the “dermal ossicles” or bone skin

Ground sloths migrated to North America during the ice age. They spent their lives wondering open-grasslands with water sources, like rivers and lakes. Using its stubby snout and sense of smell, the sloth may have found and eat grasses, shrubs, and plants with flowers. The need for water sources may have brought Harlan’s Ground Sloths to New Mexico and southern US during the ice age. Before the sand dunes existed, a giant lake called Lake Otero filled the area. It provided a water source that attracted many ice age animals, including Harlan’s Ground Sloths.

Today on the old dried lakebed of Lake Otero or Alkali Flat, New Mexico, Harlan’s Ground Sloths left clues that they were here. Many fossilized footprints are visible. They had crescent shaped footprints. Their back feet twisted inward when they walked. This made them walk slowly, almost like waddling. These large strong slow moving animals became easy targets for daring predators such as Paleo-Human hunters.

The Giant ground sloth of course does not live today. Around 10,000 years ago, the large ice age animals died out. Scientists still debate why the larger animals disappeared. The Harlan ground sloth is reminder of a time long past however with modern technology maybe one day could be brought back.

Basic Fundamental Rights

Here some basic rights:

1) Freedom of movement without permits or controls for citizens;

2) Freedom from confiscation of private property;

3) Freedom of expression speech and the press;

4) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure;

5) Freedom from arbitrary arrest, delays of justice and judgment with a trial by jury;

6) Freedom to defend one self with arms;

7) Freedom to discriminate between people you wish to associate or do business with;

8) Freedom to engage in any activity not violating the fundamental rights of others;

9) Freedom of ownership and control of private property;

10) Freedom from redistribution of income by government via confiscatory taxation;

11) Freedom to contract freely with other willing parties without government regulation or licensing; and

12) Freedom to choose how to medically care for yourself and family.

Abu Hureyra, Syria + archaeological evidence for domestication

In 1963, despite fact project would eventually flood dozens of modern villages and ancient sites. The government of Syrian Arab Republic, decided to create dams on upper Euphrates river. Culminating a series of excavation and archaeological rescue operations. Among them, an extraordinary neolithic site. Abu Hureyra.
In a short span of less than 35 years. They gathered more information about the human being transition to agriculture, then anywhere previously; with more details. Using + setting the standard for new techniques, and with less time.

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Neolithic Architecture Daub: Obermeilen, and Robenhausen sites; Zurichsee, Bodensee, Wauwilwemoos lakes, Switzerland

During 1853-54, prolonged drought cause water in alpine lakes to drop 1 foot below lowest recorded levels.
In winter 54’, men began to begin a “land reclamation project.”

They uncovered a lake village.
First of hundreds in alpine Europe.

An enormous amount of building material preserved: remnants of wooden frames, plank floors, wattle and white walls, with thatched roofs.

So much, that dendrochronology, (tree ring dating), provided year by year site histories, firmly identifying the earliest villages on Zurichsee , Bodensee, Wauwilwemoos lakes (more than 5000 years old).

Neolithic villagers, continued to live by the lakes for the next 3 millennia. In fact, the preserved material remains two cultural transitions: from seasonal foraging, to sedentary agriculture, and from stone tools to the use of bronze.

Preservation of organic material from these settlements was extraordinary. Artifacts from almost every aspect of everyday life in Neolithic Europe survived. The lake dwellers relied heavily on wood. Besides using it for there houses, and dugout canoes, they made wooden bowls, spoons, and ladels, chisels, hooks, and knife handles; bows and clubs; and, loom parts. They also used animal bones, teeth, tusks and antlers, to make beds needles, pins, awls, chisels, saws, arrowheads, handles for stone axes, and at least one fish hook. They made chipped and ground stone tools, and at some sites, they made pottery.

The list of plant remains gives some idea of the wealth of remains from these sites. List of plants include: wheat, barley, millet; peas, apples, pears, plums, sloes, raspberries, blackberries, and strawberries; dog rose, elder and bilberry; and, caraway seeds, beech nuts, hickory nuts and water chestnuts; Even fava beans, which the villagers may have grown. Rarely preserved on European sites, providing particularly interesting cultural information. Flax and opium poppies were also found at the sites.

Did you know 3/4 of weight of poppy seed is its oil, and that besides its use in bread, and pain relief, raw oil can be used to burn in lamps.

Many people claimed to analyze stainless steel first. Here are some of the facts:


-Discovery of chromium was in 1797 by Louis Nicholas Vauquelin;
-Development of ferrochromium was by Pierre Berthier in 1821. Though it was was weak. With high carbon content. Productions mostly failed;
-A provisional British patent was obtained for an “acid- and weather-resistant” steel alloy with ~31% chromium in 1872. Patent was never filed;
-Hans Goldschmidt developed a method for producing better low-carbon ferrochromium in 1895;
-Henri Moisson, may have developed stronger Ferrochromium, in 1895 but it was never published;
-A. Carnot and E. Goutal did report that high carbon contents reduce corrosion resistance of chromium-added steel in 1898; and
-Nearly 10 years later, Leon Guillet was sometimes credited with the development of stainless steels. He published papers starting in 1904 where he analyzed the mechanical properties for high chromium steels.

After this, one person, became popular. Harry Brearley, who was an employee of Firth Brown Research Laboratories, was credited with industrial use of stainless steel,
“Nobody was impressed; perhaps the idea of producing on a commercial scale a steel which would not corrode sounded ridiculous.”

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