Neolithic Site: El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth), Sonora, Mexico

University of Arizona researchers preciously found El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth’) not that long ago, in 2007. Yet it is recognized for a huge amount of reasons. It is the first discovery of humans and gomphotheres in North America. The radiocarbon dating also makes it, along with ‘Aubrey site’, in north Texas, the oldest Clovis site in North America.

Gomphotheres were previously undiscovered in North America


El fin del mundo (or ‘End of the earth’) allows us to consider various topics, such as:
-environmental change;
-paleoindian subsistence and regional interaction;
-the role that humans may have played in the extinction of Pleistocene fauna; and,
-how early ancestors adapted to the region, and went beyond with the use of lithic raw material to manufacture different types of points.

Neolithic Architecture: Saltville, Smyth County, Virginia

Studied 2 centuries, yet little got published. Located in western Smyth county, Virginia. Within Saltville valley about 1.3km south of north branch, Holston river (major drainage system of SW Virginia).

In 1782, Colonel Arther Campbell mentioned bones of an uncommon size in a letter to Thomas Jefferson.

5 identifiable artifacts included: Sandstone knives, a triangular stone, and putative chert tool.

One of the oldest layers contained a “concretion” (putatively bound together by congealed animal fat). Which was probably a mastodon butcher zone.

Outside of this, because of paucity, very little said about human life-way. Other than probably processing the extinct critters, (mastodon, mammoth, and musk ox), Saltville was probably like a puzzle piece to much larger picture.

Controversial Pre-Narches
Flooded river helped perserve plant/animal remains including shales, siltstones, sandstone &limestone geo formations
Saltville Site – Vindicated use of single Mastodon
Saltville River, or Channel Flooded and sediments filled abutted parts of this ancient channel
Sandstone rocks thought to have been butchering axes or knifes for mastodon (mammut americanum)
Mammoth Tooth (bottom), and femur tool of the musk ox (bootherium bombifrons)
Musk Ox butchering tool
Mastodon tusk segments
More bone tools, probably a musk ox