Stonehenge is in the south of England. It has captivated the curiosity and imagination of people for centuries.

Located in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. The site attracts numerous visitors who come to marvel at its ancient stones and ponder its mysteries. It continues to be a symbol of human history and cultural heritage.

The purpose of Stonehenge remains a topic of debate and speculation. It is widely believed to have had religious, ceremonial, and astronomical significance. In part, due to its alignment with the movements of the sun and moon. It is thought to have been a place of worship, burial site, site for observing celestial events or maybe a site where people just gathered and worked together on something.

While the precise reasons for building Stonehenge are not definitively known. The monument’s design and engineering are impressive, particularly considering the technology available during its construction. Stonehenge evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of large-scale construction on and around the monument. Perhaps extending the landscape’s 6500 or even 8000 years. The monument itself is composed of two main types of stones: the larger sarsen stones, which form the outer ring, trilithons (two vertical stones with a horizontal lintel on top); and, the smaller bluestones, which are arranged in an inner horseshoe shape. Some of the stones at Stonehenge weigh several tons and were likely transported over long distances.

Debate Function and construction
Because there was no written records the area remains subject to debate. Being so. There are myths. The tril-ithons, there horseshoe arrangement; the heel stone; the embanked avenue; and, great great size. Is combined and aligned to have the sunset of the winter solstice and the opposing sunrise of the summer solstice.

Construction techniques used by the Stonehenge builders included pushing, pulling, rolling. Or, shear legs. A track, using a flat bottom; or, pine logs could be used for rolling objects.
Some of the other, most extreme theories include sleigh running on track with animal fat, or even that glaciers could have left them. One thing is for sure. It has been studied alot, and for the time period. Quite significant.

It’s lithnophonic: royal college of Art in London suggest the indigenous bluestones possess “unusual acoustic properties”
These rocks were special. When struck they respond “loud clanging noise”. Similar to Carn Melyn ridge of Presili. And, the Presili village of Maenclochog (Welsh for bell or ringing stones). Lithnophonic rocks have been used for millenia. They were commonly used as local church bells until the 18th century. “Ringing rocks” seems to support the hypothesis that Stonehenge was a “place for healing” put forward by scientists, who consulted with the researchers.

Traveling northwest. Were the ancestors of the people who built Stonehenge. It was probably early European farmers who came from the Eastern Mediterranean. They were the lions share. As well though. There were hunter-gatherers from western Europe. Mainly the builders were Iberians & people from the central Europeans early and middle neolithic time period. You can read more about them here (na).
Bell Beaker people arrived later, around 2,500 BC, migrating from mainland Europe. By the end of Stonehenge traders had found out about tin. It was a cool time. For centuries, its believed the practice of cereal cultivation actually fell out of favor, Between 3300 and 1500 BC. Much of the population reverting to a pastoralist subsistence patterns. They were of a different class. Focused on hazelnut gathering and pig and cattle farming. Antiquity and analysis has suggested this. A higher class. One with the beaker and tin culture trade came hazelnut gathering and pig and cattle farming.

Folklore “Heel Stone”, “Friar’s Heel”, or “Sun-Stone”
The Heel Stone lies northeast of the sarsen circle, beside the end portion of Stonehenge Avenue. It is a rough stone, 16 feet (4.9 m) above ground, leaning inwards towards the stone circle. The Sun rise in the approximate direction of the Heel Stone, and the Sun has often been photographed over it. Folk tales have references it.

Arthurian legend
Twelfth-century Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”), by Geoffrey Monmouth. Has a story about how Stonehenge was brought from Ireland. Of course using the help of wizard Merlin.

Sixteenth century to present
Stonehenge has changed ownership several times since King Henry VIII. In 1540 Henry gave the estate to the Earl of Hertford. Passed it to Lord Carleton, Marquess of Queensberry. The Antrobus family of Cheshire bought it in the 1820s. And, Stonehenge was up for auction in 1915, soon after WW1 and his inheritence. The auction by Knight Frank & Rutley estate agents in Salisbury was held on 21 September 1915. Cecil Chubb bought the site for £6,600 (£562,700 in 2023). He gave it to the nation three years later.

Site access
Between 1972 and 1984, Stonehenge was the site of the Stonehenge Free Festival. Visitors were in the tens of thousands. Something happened, the parties were getting too big. And, it was shut to visitors. They needed to preserve it again. Until around 2000. Courts opened it again. They claimed it was religous right to attend Stonehenge. Locals, religious groups and english heritage had special rights there. What did you think? Is Stonehenge more significant then, other megalithic sites? It certainly has its differences. Including a timeline and location. What a special place.

Almost all bluestone sarsens are direct chemical match to those near Marlborough. In Wiltshire, 15 miles north
In 2020, David Nash, and the University of Brighton concluded it. Still some others claim human activity at Waun Mawn ceased around the same time. When Stonehenge was built. And, that some people may have migrated to Stonehenge. Dismantle or re-mantling giant megaliths from different stone circle sites in the region.

While we marvel at its ancient stones and ponder its mysteries. It continues to be an important symbol of human history and cultural heritage. Despite all the debate and speculation. It still has religious, ceremonial, and astronomical significance due to its alignment with the movements of the sun and moon. It has been a place of worship; a burial site; worksite, and, somewhere to observing celestial events.
Stonehenge is an iconic symbol of ancient civilization and attracts tourists and researchers from around the world. It will continue to be a subject of archaeological study. Uncovering more about its construction, its neolithic timeline, purpose, and the strong people who built it.

Bibliography: “The New Discoveries at Blick Mead: the Key to the Stonehenge Landscape” ( University of Buckingham. Archived (

Pearson, Mike Parker; Pollard, Josh; Richards, Colin; Welham, Kate; Kinnaird, Timothy; Shaw, Dave; et al. (12 February 2021). “The original Stonehenge? A dismantled stone circle in the Preseli Hills of west Wales” ( Antiquity. 95 (379): 85–103. doi:10.15184/aqy.2020.239 ( “Waun Mawn is the third largest of Britain’s great stone circles with diameters over 100 m.”

“Stonehenge builders travelled from far, say researchers” ( 4084). BBC News. 9 March 2013. Archived ( from the original on 10 March 2013.

“RCA Research Team Uncovers Stonehenge’s Sonic Secrets” ( Royal College of Art. Archived (

Paul Rincon, Stonehenge: DNA reveals origin of builders. ( Archived (

Brace, Selina; Diekmann, Yoan; Booth, Thomas J.; van Dorp, Lucy; Faltyskova, Zuzana; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Ferry, Matthew; Michel, Megan; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Stewardson, Kristin; Martiniano, Rui; Walsh, Susan; Kayser, Manfred; Charlton, Sophy; Hellenthal, Garrett; Armit, Ian; Schulting, Rick; Craig, Oliver E.; Sheridan, Alison; Parker Pearson, Mike; Stringer, Chris; Reich, David; Thomas, Mark G.; Barnes, Ian (2019). “Ancient genomes indicate population replacement in Early Neolithic Britain” ( Nature Ecology & Evolution. 3 (5): 765–771. doi:10.1038/s41559-019-0871-9 ( ISSN 2397-334X ( PMC 6520225 ( PMID 30988490 (

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Nash, David; Ciborowski, T. Jake; Ullyott, J. Stewart; Pearson, Mike Parker; Darvill, Timothy; Greaney, Susan; Maniatis, Georgios; Whitaker, Katy A. (29 July 2020). “Origins of the sarsen megaliths at Stonehenge” ( Science Advances. 6 (31): eabc0133. Bibcode:2020SciA….6C.133N (….6C.133N). doi:10.1126/sciadv.abc0133 ( PMC 7439454 ( PMID 32832694
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