An advanced flint tool making style. Believed to have originated in Spain. The Solutrean has been found in modern-day France, Portugal and Spain.
The Rock of Solutré site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry.
Geographical Western Europe
Upper Paleolithic Dates c. 22,000 – c.17,000 BP
Preceded by Gravettian; Followed by Magdalenian
Finds include tools, ornamental beads, and bone pins as well as prehistoric art and oil lanterns.
Tool making techniques
There methods worked small delicate slivers of flint. And, some bone and antler as well. To make light projectiles, even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads. These took making methods had not yet been seen before. Long, thin spear heads (pic); knives and saws were all characteristic of the Solutrean point industry.
Megafauna finds include horse, reindeer, mammoth, cave lion, wholly rhinosauros, bear and auroch (links on site)
It has been said Solutrean remains were a “slightly more gracile type” than Gravettians. Males were still tall, averaging around 180cm.
Scientists challenge the link between Solutrean and Clovis
It is a challenge though. There are gaps in time. As well as, lack of evidence of seafaring.
Here’s are some examples. DNA of a male infant, from 12,500 year old deposit in Montana has been sequenced. “Anzick-1”. He was found buried close to numerous clovis artifacts. When analyzed. Comparisons showed greater relations to Siberian sites, like Malta’ Buret (link); and Kennewick man (link).
Check them out with some greater neolithic architecture today.
Bibliography: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Solutrian Epoch”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 377.
Heinrich, Hartmut (1 March 1988). “Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years” (https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2F0033-5894%2888%2990057-9). Quaternary Research. 29 (2): 142–152. Bibcode:1988QuRes..29..142H (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988QuRes..29..142H). doi:10.1016/0033-5894(88)90057-9 (https://doi.org/10.1016%2F0033-5894%2888%2990057-9). ISSN 0033-5894 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0033-5894). S2CID 129842509 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:129842509).
Straus, L.G. (April 2000). “Solutrean settlement of North America? A review of reality”.American Antiquity. 65 (2): 219–226. doi:10.2307/2694056 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F269405
6). JSTOR 2694056 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/2694056). S2CID 162349551 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:162349551).
Westley, Kieran and Justin Dix (2008). “The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean”. Journal of the North Atlantic. 1: 85–98. doi:10.3721/J080527 (https://doi.org/10.3721%2FJ080527). S2CID 130294767 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:130294767).
“Ancient American’s genome mapped” (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-26172174). BBC News. 14 February 2014.
Wikipedia contributors. (2023). Solutrean. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solutrean
Trinkaus, Erik (July 2001). “Upper Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta do Caldeirão, Tomar, Portugal” (http://www.bristol.ac.uk/archanth/staff/zilhao/rpa2001.pdf) (PDF). Portuguese Magazine of Archaeology. 4: 1 – via bristol.ac.uk.