Solnitsata is Солницата or ‘salt works’. A neolithic settlement dating to almost 7000 years ago

Located in north eastern Bulgaria. Solnitsata was strategically located near salt springs and marshes. Archaeologists have found evidence of salt extraction and processing there. It is one of the oldest salt production centers known. Residents would have evaporated brine from the water. In specialized clay vessels. And, then had a valuable trade resource for preservation. For its time. It was an essential spice center. From almost 10,000 years. The extraction technology can be seen in the Salt Museum, in Pomorie.

It is believed the site was destroyed by a earthquake. There were several rectangular houses made of wood and clay. Which were oriented in a grid like pattern. Having hearths, storage areas and multiple rooms. Vindicating people lived there year round. They likely had a hierarchical society with some degree of specialization. The exterior of the settlement was of fortified stone. A citadelle, inner and outer city. There was the pottery production site and the site of a salt production facility. As well as the wall. It probably had at least 350 people to protect the settlement and valuable trade resource.

Jewelry and materials were found not native to the area. Indicating distance trade. The large collection of gold objects nearby has led archaeologists to consider that this trade resulted in great wealth for the town’s residents — Varna Necropolis. Other items included pottery, and tools. Even jade axes from Italy.

The pottery discovered at Solnitsata is notable for its quality and craftsmanship. The ceramics were often adorned with intricate shapes and decorations. Showcasing the artistic skills and creativity of the inhabitants.

It is important because it sheds light on the economic and social complexities of early European societies. Their ability to exploit valuable resources. Such as salt, for a trade and sustenance good. It also underscores the significance of salt as a commodity in ancient times. As a preservative and seasoning. And, its role played in shaping the development of early civilizations. Archaeological excavations at Solnitsata have provided valuable insights into the prehistoric past of southeastern Europe.

Maugh II, Thomas H. (1 November 2012). “Bulgarians find oldest European town, a salt production center” ( The Los Angeles Times.

Ranguelov, Boyko; Nikolov, Vassil (2010). Ancient earthquake data extraction by archeological findings. EGU General Assembly 2010. 2–7 May 2010. Vienna, Austria. Bibcode:2010EGUGA..12.6393R (

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