Michelsberg culture (4400 to 3500bc) is characterized by undecorated pointy based tulip beakers.

A hill near Untergrombach, Germany belongs to central Europes late neolithic period. Covering much of west central Europe, along both sides of the Rhine. Scientists have based chronology on pottery, and other neolithic elements.

Important sites

In north eastern France around 4400, a new culture emerged. Based on human DNA, there tools and craft. Evidence suggests that peoples here originated via a migration route from the Paris basin. And, Mediterranean farmers from the southwest.
Previously occupied by the linear pottery culture. Michelsberg culture expanded rapidly through central Germany, north eastern France, eastern Belgium and south western Netherlands.

Archaeology evidence
The culture has strong affinities to the Chasseen culture of central France, and it has been suggested there expansion was not that pretty. Accompanied by violence, colonists from the Michelsberg culture strongly helped establish funnel beaker culture of northern Europe, and brought agriculture to southern Scandanavia. It could have also be said the Michelsberg culture displayed affinities to neolithic England because the spread of agriculture has been identified as happening about the same time.
One of Michelsbergs largest fortified settlement of Kapellenberg has been analyzed. German research agencies have identified numerous rectangular houses, jewelry, jade and stone tools; accompanies by a large tumulus (or, burial mound). That was built in the middle of the settlement around 4200-4100bc. It suggested that it had an influence from Brittany since Tumiac and Saint-Michel were built around 4500 BC. Judging by the numerous Jade axes and tools (from Italy); as well as, callaïs (variscite and turquoise) jewellery from Spain. A complicated exchange network existed.

What is a Jade Axe? Jade is a very hard powerful stone. In the battle field, falling trees, making knives and other tools. Because of its hardness. It would have been better. It lasts longer, is incredibly powerful, and would have provided a voice of power to others in there communities and area.

Rising steeply almost 600 feet above the plain. Michelsberg hill is about 4km southeast of the modern town of Bruchsal. As defined by the 3 steep slopes on almost all sides. It is a protected natural defense mechanism.

Formal archaeology on the sites begin around 1884. All kinds of pathways, earthworks, pits, and daub-covered wooden structures have been found.
Suggesting an agricultural economy, barley and emmer were also discovered. Animal husbandry is indicated. There are bones of domesticated cattle, pig, sheep and goat. Domestic dogs have also been identified. Even been bones of deer, fox and other animals were found. Suggesting hunting was an important element of Michelsberg culture.
Sparingly, there was no indication of a destructive end of the site; nor were there finds suggesting a violent end. Some of the earthworks and pits contained food reserves suggesting abandonment. It could have been due to environment, or something else. Drying up of the Rhines arms would have caused this. If there was less water available in the area. Like many other neolithic sites. Traveling, and/or dyking up would have become too burdensome. And, they would have went somewhere else.

Bibliography: Shennan, Stephen (2018). The First Farmers of Europe: An Evolutionary Perspective. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108386029. ISBN9781108422925.

Jörg Biel, Helmut Schlichtherle, Michael Strobel u. Andrea Zeeb (ed.), Die Michelsberger Kultur und ihre Randgebiete – Probleme der Entstehung, Chronologie und des Siedlungswesens. Kolloquium Hemmenhofen 21.‒23. Februar 1997. Materialhefte zur Archäologie in Baden-Württemberg 43 (Stuttgart 1998).

Darvill, Timothy, ed. (2009). “Michelsberg Culture”. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN9780191727139.

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