John Lubbock 1834-1913, coined the term neolithic in 1865. He was a banker, archaeologist, naturalist and late 1800s politician

Born into a different time. John was seen as a child prodigy. Growing up neighbour and best friends with Charles Darwin. During a time when natural curiosity still roamed. Inclined individuals could achieve, experience and advance the unachievable . Exploring achaeological wonders and unknown critters, landscapes and caves.

As a polymath. Living from 1834-1913. He is notable for his contributions to a wide range of fields, including anthropology, archaeology, entomology, and evolutionary theory. He also played a role in the establishment of the system of dating prehistoric periods based on stone tools and other artifacts. Introducing the terms “Palaeolithic” and “Neolithic”. He used and developed these terms to classify different stages of prehistoric human development. Based on their stone tools and technologies.

Surprised by his father in 1842. A banker, who had studied math, and written on astronomy and probability at Cambridge. That the 30 something, Charles Darwin had moved down the street. Initiating a passion for excellence and scientific and evolutionary theory. As high achievers for there time. They developed a great friendship. Lubbock even stayed in the area so they could hang out. They corresponded extensively.

Political aura
In 1870; and, 74 he became a liberal Member of Parliament. Promoting study of science. Less national debt. More free trade and related economic issues. He also worked on protecting the ancient monuments (ancient monuments act 1886). Securing additional hours vacation, holiday and shorter working days for the average working class (bank holidays act 1871). National curriculum (elementary education act 1870). He would eventually introduce a original law for achaeological and architectural heritage in the UK. He also served as vice chancellor of London’s University in 1872.
In the late 1880s he became president of the London chamber of commerce. And, there after, other similar associations and groups.
Because of his services, he received a bunch of honourary degrees. From Edinburgh, Oxford, Wurzburg, and other schools. In the early 1900s, his talent and relations even helped soothe the sometimes ill relations. Between England and Germany at the time.

Darwin and Origin of man
Lubbock was a strong supporter of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution and wrote extensively on the topic. Including support and evidence in the famous 1860s Oxford evolutionary debate. His famous archaeology text book. The Pre-Historic Times. Was published in 1865; and, The Origin of Civilization published in 1870. Both of which. He coined the term ‘neolithic’ and, ‘paleolithic’. The X club he helped form. Providing elitists; and, early liberals of the time. Opportunities to express theories of natural selection. While dining on fine food and wine.

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In the 1870s, he bought the land at Avebury
Helping prevent builders from developing the ancient stone circle site. From being built on. Protecting Britians nation’s heritage, he bought the Avebury site. In 1874, he introduced a bill that identified the other ancient sites. In 1882. The Ancient Monuments Act, came into effect. Provided emphasis on the times, and legal protection that was needed.

Lubbock was also an amateur biologist of some distinction, writing books on hymenoptera
Ants, Bees and Wasps: a record of observations on the habits of the social hymenoptera. Kegan Paul, London; New York: Appleton. Was published 1884. On insect sense organs and development, and the intelligence of animals. The first monograph on UK Springtails (Collembola). Monograph on the Collembola and Thysanura, Ray Society, London. And other natural history topics. Was also published.
He discovered that ants were sensitive to light in the near ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

He had 8 brothers and 3 sisters. And, two different wives. He rebuilt Kingsgate Castle. As his family home. Where he died in 1913. In addition to his family and scientific pursuits, Lubbock was a prominent figure in British politics. As Member of Parliament and various governmental positions. His efforts led to passing of bank holidays, and protection of neolithic and paleolithic archaeology and the terms.

Overall, John Lubbock was a multifaceted human being. Who made significant contributions to various scientific fields. And, left a lasting impact on archaeology, entomology, evolutionary theory, and the understanding of prehistoric human societies.

Mithen, Steven (2006). After the Ice: A Global Human History, 20,000-5000 BC ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01570-8.

Howarth & Howarth 1933, pp. 72–73 (

Baggs, A.P.; Freeman, Jane; Stevenson, Janet H (1983). Crowley, D.A. (ed.). “Victoria County History: Wiltshire: Vol 12 pp86-105
– Parishes: Avebury” ( British History Online. University of London.

Lubbock J. (1865) Pre-Historic Times, Williams & Norgate, London

Freeman 1978, p. 192 (

“Darwin Correspondence Project”, John Lubbock, 1834–1913″ (

Thurley, Simon.”The Men from the Ministry”, Yale University Press. 2013. ISBN 978-0-300-19572-9

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