Jerf el Ahmar maybe much older than 10,000 years. It means red cliff. Though, now it’s barried under water

Also spelled Jerf Ajram. Another very imporatant archaeological site dates to the neolithic period in Syria. The site is of great significance. It provides valuable insights into the early stages of agricultural practices and sedentary human settlements.

It contained a sequence of more than 40 round and rectangular buildings
Actually a dozen villages piled one on top of the other. That was occupied between 9600 and 8500 BC. Discovered in the oldest strata were round houses, and rectangular ones overlying them. At this bend in the Euphrates river, people may have learned to set stones together at right angles. Building blocks of small villages, and planned open space.

Before the appearance of writing. Archaeological teams discovered small terra-cotta plaquettes
The mnemonic symbols were etched 5,000 years before the appearance of writing.

Very old transitions to agriculture are observed here. By the discovery of wild barley and einkorn
The very first lentil domestication appears here too.

Following construction of the Tishrin Dam. The site is currently flooded by Lake Assad
Months before flooding. Archaeologist discovered a 11,600-year-old structure. With benches lining its interior walls. It suggested that some sort of communal ritual activity occurred there.

The site is particularly important for understanding the development of human society in the ancient Near East and the transition from a mobile way of life to a more permanent settlement pattern. The site, along with other nearby Neolithic sites. Contributes to our knowledge of the early history and cultural development of the region.

Bibliography: Weiss, Ehud; Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat (2006). “Autonomous Cultivation Before Domestication” ( Science. 312 (5780): 1608–1610. doi:10.1126/science.1127235 ( PMID 16778044 ( S2CID 83125044 (

del Olmo Lete, Gregorio; Montero Fenollós, Juan Luis, eds. (1999), Archaeology of theUpper Syrian Euphrates, the Tishrin Dam area: Proceedings of the International
Symposium held at Barcelona, January 28th–30th, 1998, Barcelona: AUSA,ISBN 978-84-88810-43-4

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