Hilly Flanks is the area surrounding the fertile crescent. 10,000 years ago, agriculture may have originated here. Including in the Zargos, and Taurus mountains and there Highlands

A gentle man named Robert Braidwood, coined the term shortly after ww2. He had done the un-ordinary. Purposing the neolithic revolution had begin in these areas. Because some of these areas may have received enough rainfall naturally. And, from snowfall. They wouldn’t have needed irrigation. This transition from hunter gather was significant. It lead to the development of settled communities and the growth of civilization.

orange-pink section of fertile crescent

It includes a large location Turkey, NW Iraq, western Iran
Natural borders are the Zargos mountains to the north, Iranian plateau to the east, Tigris river to south, and Mesopotamia to west. In this area, scientists noticed many of the characteristic for origins of agriculture. From the snow capped mountains. It was not just the natural water. Over this 1000 mile stretch. There were wild grains like barley that grew naturally. And, sheep and goats roamed too. Most of the area region lies within the northern highlands of the Levant.

Common to many historical early farming sites
Early farming characteristics include located elevated sites around river catchments.

Tokens, figurines were found here. And, some pottery
Including identification of femininity. Things like neolithic jewelry were found here. Exacerbating the hips and thighs, and a female body. Venus figurines too. Tokens were also found. Shaped as balls, cones, buttons and even teardrops. It was rarer but pottery was also found here.

Grains included: Barley, wheat legumes, grains (link)

Sheep and Goats were domesticated. As, well as pigs and cattle

Robert Braidwood led the Jarmo project in the 50s
In the ‘Hilly Flanks’, Robert and his wife discovered many floral, faunal and archaeological remains. Indicating a shift from wild species hunting and gathering. To a more dependent system. Using the domestication of plants, animals and there by-products. To live organically. Additionally, due to the environment. 10,000 years ago. Recent studies show lower pleistocene snow lines in the region. There may have also been increases in precipitation. Due to glaciers melting, and holocene.

Opposition to the ‘oasis’ theory (Gordon Childe). That purposes more of a well watered desert
Robert and his wifes ‘hilly flanks’ theory. Is generally the more accepted theory. Because of the development of land, and disintegrated remains (morphogenesis). Sites being destroyed by agriculture. And, archeological techniques and skill. It has taken quite some time to prove.

Did you know? Some researches used ‘hilly flanks’ to refer to a northern fertile (or foothill) arc in China

Playing a crucial role in the development of early human societies and the growth of civilization. The ‘hilly flanks’ region in the near east is where agriculture is believed to have originated.

Bibliography: Hirst, K. Kris. “What Is the Oasis Theory?” (https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-the-oasis-t heory-171996)

Hirst, K. Kris. “What are the Hilly Flanks in Agriculture?” (https://www.thoughtco.com/hilly- flanks-theory-agriculture-171269). ThoughtCo

Richardson (2019). “Pre-Pottery Clay Innovation in the Zagros Foothills” (https://doi.org/1 0.1111/ojoa.12155). Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 38 (1): 2\’9617. doi:10.1111/ojoa.12155 (https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fojoa.12155)

Giraud, Jessica; Baldi, Johnny S.; Bonilauri, St\’e9phanie; Mashkour, Marjan; Lem\’e9e, Marion; Pichon, Fiona; Mura, Mathilde; Pot, Marie-Aliette; Jamialahmadi, Mana; Biglari, Fereidoun; Rasheed, Kamal (2019-12-01). “Human occupation along the foothills of Northwestern Zagros during the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene in the Rania and Peshdar plains” (ht tps://dx.doi.org/10.4000/paleorient.702). Pal\’e9orient (45\’962): 85\’96119. doi:10.4000/paleorient.702 (https://doi.org/10.4000%2Fpaleorient.702). ISSN 0153-9345 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0153-9345)

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