Font-de-Gaume is a well known cave in south west France

Located near Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in the Dordogne department.
Font-de-Gaume cave contents contain paintings in several colours dating to almost 30,000 years.

While exploring the area, in 1901 Denis Peyrony discovered the paintings.

Prehistoric people lived in the Dordogne valley around 25000 thousand years ago. The cave was inhabited for several thousand years. Something must have happened. Because there after, the cave is believed to be long forgotten.

Many of the drawings date from around 19,000 years ago. The most famous is of 5 bison, and was discovered by accident in the 1960s when scientists were cleaning the cave.
More than 230 figures are believed to have been recorded in the cave. Included is 80 bison, 40 horses and 20 mammoths. Some say there are even more yet to be discovered.

Did you know? 200 of the paintings are in multi colour. Making Font-de-Gaume one of the best examples of polychrome (multi colour) paintings other than Lascaux.

Check it out today.

Time of our lives 2: Boats

Tens of thousands of years ago, the idea of building different types of water transport started. Like log rafts, bundle (or boyant) rafts; and, log, plank, bark, hide, pottery, bundle, or basketry boats. It may have originated in one area. And, from there, ballooned out.

What are prehistoric boats?

The earliest log boat is dated to the eighth millennium BC.
There are only a few hundred log boats worldwide before 1500, though man rebuilt many. Perhaps there are some still at bottoms of bodies of water.

The earliest plank boat went to the five thousand years ago.
There are a hundred well documented plank boat and ship remains from before 1500.

There are no excavated examples of the other five basic types of boat: hide, bark, bundle, basket, or pottery.
No bundle or buoyed rafts; and

Only five documented log rafts. The earliest from Roman times.

How do you think elders got to south, central and southern North America 15, 16, or even 18,000 and more years ago? And what explains the lack of data for some of the most commonly known boats?

Our knowledge is also very much biased towards planked boats and ships.

It is also biased towards Europe. Why is this?

New Mexico white sands fossilized footprints – 21,000-23,000 years ago

Latest research shows humans have been living in an area of southern new Mexico for around 22,000 years. It was previously thought that humans arrived in the area closer to 13,500 – 16,000 years ago. But recently analyzed foot prints found at White Sands, the Tularosa Basin and former Lake Otero are the latest.

During the ice age, tens of thousands of years ago, a giant body of water, Lake Otero, rested within the Tularosa basin. The climate was less arid, and vegetation was abundant. One could have seen grasslands stretching for miles that would have looked more like the prairies of the Midwest rather than New Mexico’s deserts.

White Sands has the largest collection of fossilized human footprints. So scientists that study fossil footprints here are better suited to understand the ice age ecosystem at Lake Otero. The white dunes of the Tularosa Basin are just a recent occurrence on the geological timeline. Scientists are still uncovering new evidence of past life.

The beauty of lush green and blue plants and water would have naturally captured the attention of mammals like mammoth, sloth, giant beaver and others. Even ancient plant eaters like the pronghorns and camels would have been there. The scary predators like flat nose bear, direwolf and american lion were attracted. And in all, these animals footprints remained remained long after departure of the wetlands and biogeogadesically diverse region that eventually became fossilized.

Upon discovery of some markings, a few years ago, they dug a trench on the park’s western playa. And, within different layers of sediment below the surface of the dig site. Human footprints were found. Above and below these footprints were ancient grass seeds (Ruppia cirrhosa) which were analyzed using radiocarbon dating. It was revealed that the calibrated dates were of 22,860 (∓320) and 21,130 (∓250) years ago.

What does it mean? These were some old ass footprints. Of a women (or man) carrying something; and less, or dryer soil on the route back because there was less indents. Wow!

Stay tuned

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Bibliography: White Sands National Park (U.S. National Park Service); and,

Neolithic Architecture Masterpiece: Dolmen of Menga, Antequera, Spain


Found mostly in Britain and France. Dolmens are megalithic tombs with a large flat stone laid on upright ones. Its word origin is mid 19th century. From French, or perhaps via Breton, from Cornish. Dolmen is a ‘hole of a stone’. Yet, this form of Neolithic Architecture is in modern Spain.
In the south, a long barrow form of dolmen, called a tumulus, and forms the Dolmen of Menga. It is 90 ft long, 20 ft wide and 11 ft high, and was built with thirty-two megaliths. The largest weighing about 180 tonnes. The chamber, probably served as a grave for ruling families. When it was opened in the 1800s, hundreds of skeletons were found inside. It is one of the largest known ancient megalithic structures in Europe. Dating from the 3750-3650 BCE Unesco has made it a world heritage site. It is near Antequera, Málaga, Spain. What a beautiful masterpiece.

What would leave you more mesmerized, its size; builders skill, strength, or?

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Neolithic Site: El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth), Sonora, Mexico

University of Arizona researchers preciously found El Fin del Mundo (‘End of the Earth’) not that long ago, in 2007. Yet it is recognized for a huge amount of reasons. It is the first discovery of humans and gomphotheres in North America. The radiocarbon dating also makes it, along with ‘Aubrey site’, in north Texas, the oldest Clovis site in North America.

Gomphotheres were previously undiscovered in North America

El fin del mundo allows us to consider various topics, such as:
-environmental change;
-paleoindian subsistence and regional interaction;
-the role that humans may have played in the extinction of Pleistocene, and Pleistocene fauna; and,
-how early ancestors adapted to the region, and went beyond with the use of lithic raw material to manufacture different types of points.

Hong Kongs Neolithic Architecture

Neolithic Architecture of Hong Kong 275

Sai Kung, at Wong Ten Tung, an area in Hong Kong.  Archeologists claim, there may have been a stone making tool site, from over 30,000 years ago.

In another area, the Sham Chung, beside tree fathoms cove, recently there were more than 6000 artifacts found, in a slope.

Begaining in the true “neolithic era”. Cheung Chau, Lantau Island and Lamma Island all had evidence of neolithic architecture.  Mostly on the western shores, greatest evidence is of Che settlers.  Approximately 7,000 years ago.   Because of strong SE winds this location was most likely chosen to avoid breezy days, and to collect food from the nearby shores.

A period of ‘warring states’ brought Yuet people from the north into the area. Eventually the Che and Yuets finished battle.  Bronze, fishing, combat, ritual tools and gear were all excavated on Lantau and Lamma Island.  Though the earliest direct settlement of neolithic architecture to Hong Kong was Ma Wan. Che, Yuet and other people probably amalgamated there and formed the Hong Kong people we know there today.

Hong Kong and South China Sea 277

Who would had thought Neolithic Architecture had such ‘global reach’?

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What is Neolithic; and Neolithic Architecture

Neolithic is based in Greek νέος néos or ‘new;’ and, λίθος líthos or ‘stone’.

Architecture, is the art or practice of designing and constructing buildings. Or;
The complex or carefully designed structure of something.

Pest, chimney, cabins/log cabins are naturally neolithic architecture.

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Neolithic site: Watson Brake

Near present-day Ouachita Parish, Louisiana, is the neolithic site Watson Brake. Making it older than stonehenge and some pyramids, it is estimated 3-4 thousand years old. It is the most ancient ‘earth mound complex’ in North America. It is recognized as a hunter-gatherer society, though believed to have also done maize cultivation with an organizational structure.
The livable mounds were believed to be constructed over 500 years of time. It is located in the Ouachita flood plain near Watson Bayou, and Monroe. It consists of 11 earthwork mounds, from 3 to 25 feet and was connected by ridges to form an oval nearly 900 feet across.
The site has been dated before the ‘poverty point’, in Northern Louisiana about 1,900 years. Though the earliest known North American mound neolithic site, there are quite a number of earlier sites in Mexico and Central America.

In 1980, local resident, Reca Bamburg Jones, identified the pattern of eleven mounds connected by ridges. She, and a few others published a survey of ‘pre history in the Ouachita River Valley In 1983.
Half the site is still owned by different families, and the site had been privately controlled since the 1950s. Northeast Louisiana University, and University of Texas (Austin) has radio carbon dated and published papers on the great antiquity of the site. The Gentry family grants permission to archeologists wishing to view this site but refuses to sell.

A concept what site may have looked like

Building coincided with periods of rainfall, and el Nino, and ‘southern oscillation events’. Hunting and gathering may represented the response to droughts, flooding and unpredictable food supply base. Food findings included: fish, shellfish; deer, turkey, raccoon, opossum, squirrel, and rabbits. Plants: goosefoot (Chenopodium berlandieri), knotweed (Polygonum spp.), and possibly marshelder (Iva annua). The people heated local gravel for cooking stones to steam some of their food. They created and fired earthenware items in a variety of shapes, but researchers have not fully yet determined their functions.

Black marking is location, in northern part of state

Without steel or metal working tools, Watson Brake demonstrates that pre-agricultural, ceramic, indigenous cultures were complex. They organized large enough forces to build nearly 10 meter mounds, and monumental construction, that marked the rise of neolithic times, and social complexity worldwide. Here’s to monuments.

Neolithic tar sands, in Los Angeles: La Brea

La Brea Tar Pits is an active paleontological research site in urban Los Angeles. Natural asphalt (asphaltum, bitumen, pitch, or tar) was found near Hancock Park. Dating from at least 3500 BC, the tar preserved the bones of trapped Neolithic animals.

Bitumen lines, from the crude oil, seep up along the 6th Street Fault from the Salt Lake Oil Field, which underlies much of the Fairfax District north of Hancock Park. Oil reaches the ground and forms pools, near modern day downtown Los Angelas, becoming asphalt as the the petroleum biodegrade or evaporate. It usually hardens into stubby mounds. The pools and mounds can be seen at the Museum. Below is a picture.


Aboriginal ‘Chumash and Tongva’ lived in La Brea building boats and neolithicly through time. Pulling fallen large tree trunks and pieces of wood from the ocean, they learned to seal the checks between the boards and wood by using the stagnant liquid. An expedition, led by Gaspar de Portolá, led the first documented visit to the tar sands by Spanish in 1769.

By the 1880’s, land was purchased by a Countess of Dundonald. A formal excavation began by Messrs Turnbull, Stewart & Co in 1886.

In 1901 a oil geologist was finally credited with recognizing that fossilized prehistoric animal bones were preserved in pools. John C. Merriam, and the university of California begain a major portion of the early anthropological work. In search of large skeletons, between 1913 and 1915, explorers excavated more than 100 sites finding thousands of specimens. These excavations though, while being examined, have gradually been filled, by an accumulation of asphaltum, dust, leaves, and water.

Only one human has been found, a partial skeleton of the La Brea Woman dated to around 10,000 years. She is estimated to have been 17 to 25 years old, and found associated with remains of a domestic dog.

Neolithic Architecture; pest control, chimney cleaning, and log cabin building.

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Neolithic Architecture: What is a Mastodon?

A mastodon (mastós ‘breast’ + odoús ‘tooth’), are proboscidean beings, that belong to the extinct genus Mammut.

It is believed mastodons may have went extinct around the Neolithic revolution 10,000-12,000 years ago, due to a flood; over hunting; or a combination of factors.

A mastodon bone in New Mexico

American mastodon at La Brae 1111

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