Its soft clay-like floor retains the paw prints of cave bears along with large, rounded depressions that are believed to be the “nests” where the Europen cave bears slept. In Grotte Chauvet-point d’arc, fossilized bones are abundant, and include the skulls of cave bears, and the horned skull of an ibex.
Located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-d’Arc. On a limestone cliff, above the former bed of the river Ardèche, in the Gorges de l’Ardèche, is Chauvet cave. It is situated above the previous course of the Ardèche river before the Pont d’Arc opened up. The gorges of the Ardèche region and the site are numerous. There are many caves, much of them having some geological or archaeological importance.
This cave is amongst the best preserved caves in the world. Chauvet cave remained untouched for possibly thousands of years before it was discovered in 1994. Evidence suggests that it was due to a landslide which covered its historical entrance. Left with the cave bear foot prints were little child’s footprints, the charred remains of ancient hearths, and carbon smoke stains from torches that lit the caves.
Like many European caves, dates have been a matter of dispute. A study published in 2012 supports placing the art approximately 32,000–30,000 years ago. A newer study published in 2016, using additional 88 radiocarbon dates ,showed two periods of habitation, one 37,000- 33,500; and, the other from 31,000 to 28,000 years ago. Most of the black drawings were from even earlier periods.
Artistic ‘shamanal’ components? Some say a magical ‘venus’ figure composed of what appears to be a vulva attached to an incomplete pair of legs is seen in the cave. Above the Venus, and in contact with it, is a bisons head. Most had led to describe the composite drawing as a Minotaur (half bull), or Centaur (half horse), or ??. The cave even has panels of red ochre hand stencils. From blowing the crushed up pigments of ochre over hands pressed against the caves surface. And, abstract markings—lines and dots—are found throughout the cave. There are also two unidentifiable images that have a vaguely butterfly or avian shape to them. This and/or the combination of subjects (including other caves in the area) lead many to believe that there was a ritual, shamanic, or magical aspect to these paintings, and lives of humans, tens of thousands of years ago.
Lots of drawings: The artists who produced these paintings used techniques rarely found in other cave art. Many of the paintings appear to have been made only after the walls were scraped clear of debris and concretions, leaving a smoother and noticeably lighter area upon which the artists worked. Popular paintings include what is suggested as being a dog, however these have been challenged as being a wolf. Hundreds of animal paintings have been catalogued, depicting at least 13 different species. Rather than depicting only the familiar herbivores that predominate in Paleolithic cave art, i.e. horses, aurochs, mammoths, etc., the walls of the Chauvet Cave feature many predatory animals, e.g., cave lions, leopards, bears, and cave hyenas. There is also paintings of whoolly rhinoceroses. Which had not been found in North America. One drawing, later overlaid with a sketch of a deer, is reminiscent of a volcano spewing lava, similar to the regional volcanoes that were active at the time. If confirmed, this would represent the earliest known drawing of a volcanic eruption.
Family members Sergey Zimov, and Nikita Zimov are testing a big hypothesis. Repopulating with large herbivores (and predators) can restore rich grasslands ecosystems. And, that if overhunting, and not climate change was primarily responsible for the pleistocene epoch, quanternary, or big event 11,700 years ago.
Another main aim, is to research the changes expected by the climatic effects of restoring the 10,000 year old plus ecosystem. The hypothesis is that change from tundra to grassland will result in a raised ratio of energy emission to energy absorption of the area, leading to less thawing of permafrost, and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases. It is also thought that stomping and the removal of snow by large herbivores will reduce permafrost insulation sucking in the pollution, even in cold winter.
Melted permafrost is changing the planet: Greenhouse gasses are warming the planet. Some areas, like Siberia (Russia has 11 of the 18 million square km of permafrost), it is observed more than others. But believe it or not. When there is a lot of snow, the ground and the permafrost do not get much colder in winter. Its why its called permafrost. When these soils thaw though, old microorganisms wake up and attack. What they have not had time to consume. Releasing carbon dioxide when the soil is dry, and methane when it is saturated with water. Due to climate change, it doesn’t help because this area, it is experiencing more rain. From the melting of the permafrost, if it was only co2 released, rather than both co2 and methane. The emissions is equivalent to that of human beings. For the greenhouse effect (and thus melting of the permafrost) methane gas can be 4 times worse than carbon dioxide. Resulting in even greater global warming. It is a big paradox. Many people do not understand this. The methane released from permafrost is more dangerous than carbon dioxide and both are bad. In the grassland ecosystem, everything that grew during the summer must be consumed in the winter. Large herbivores need to eat. The only way to access the grass during the cold season is to dig through the cold snow. The parks animals dig in the snow all winter long. This contributes greatly to the cooling of the soil. And, absorption and release of the greenhouse gases. It was observed that many greenhouse gases decreased during the first year and a half of covid19. While things were shut down. Instead of decreasing the methane gases increased. Due the permafrost melting. Regularly observed were appearances of new small springs where methane gases were bubbling up, in areas that used to be snow and permafrost. Other than the permafrost melting, and being replaced by trees shurbs and mosses. Not grasses, which prehistoric herbivores eat up, and stomp down. Many cannot see any other explanation for preventing this high concentration. The theory purposes that restoring the wildlife and ecosystem will absorb more greenhouse gases and help restore our natural environment. Sergey has been quoting telling the UN: “I created Pleistocene Park to observe how quickly animals could transform the moss tundra into productive grassland… why had the natural environment, which had known so many grasslands, horses, bison, mammoths, become so poor?” Permafrost has long been treated like an unwanted child in the scientific family. Reports are that by 2100 we will have lost another 10-20 percent. It is a big controversial topic.
Goals: Researching the effects of large herbivores on the arctic tundra/grasslands ecosystem, and preserving the environment; and, To research the climatic effects of the expected changes in the ecosystem. Here the key concept is that some of the effects of the large herbivores, such as eradicating trees and shrubs or trampling snow, will result in a stronger cooling of the ground in the winter, leading to less thawing of permafrost during summer and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases.
Sergei Zimov points out contradiction to this scenario: Similar climatic shifts occurred in previous interglacial periods without causing such massive environmental changes as we are seeing today; Those large herbivores of the former steppe that survived until today (e.g. musk oxen, bison, horses) thrive in humid environments just as well as in arid ones; and, The climate (both temperatures and humidity) in today’s northern Siberia is in fact most similar to that of the mammoth steppe.
Did you know? Permafrost is a large global carbon reservoir that has remained frozen throughout much of the Holocene. It is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. It is not necessarily under the snow too. Sometimes it is found hundreds of meteres deep. Due to the recent climate changes, the permafrost is increasingly thawing, releasing stored carbon and forming thermokarst lakes. When the thawed permafrost enters the thermokarst lakes, its carbon is converted into carbon dioxide and methane and released into the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and the methane emissions from thermokarst lakes have the potential to initiate a positive feedback cycle. In which increased atmospheric methane concentrations lead to amplified global climate change. Which keeps the ball rolling to more permafrost thaw, more methane and more carbon dioxide emissions. Included in the higher temperatures, rain and climate change you see in almost all places today.
Implementation & background: regional pleistocene ecoregions. Regenerate the pleistocene terrain with its different ecological habitats such as taiga, tundra, steppe and alpine terrain: Mainly recreate the extensive grasslands that covered the Beringia region in the late pleistocene. Mammoth steppe with large and medium herbivores. Species woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, lena Horse, muskox, and reindeer. Saiga antelope, some massive herds. On the edges, barrier shrub-like terrain, and dry conifer forests (similar to taiga): woolly rhinoceros, moose, wapiti, yukon wild ass, and camels. Beyond this, mountains, more mountain-going animals like: snow sheep. Variety of carnivorous mammals. Like on the plains: beringian cave lion, apex predators, shared grey wolf, cave hyena, homotherium, brown bear, wolverine, and arctic fox. In shrubs and forests there were also brown bears, wolverines, cave bears, lynxes, tigers, leopards, and red foxes.
Did you know? Siberian tiger and Amur leopard occupied the southern present Russian-Sino border in the Amur and Primorye regions. And, both have been purposed for the park.
Proposed procedure: Few of the former species of megafauna are left; and their population density is extremely low, too low to affect the environment. Desired results density raised artificially by fencing in and concentrating existing large herbivores. A large variety of species is important as each species concerns. For example are the effects on the flora (are the mosses being replaced by grasses, etc.), the effects on the atmosphere (changes in levels of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor) and the effects on the permafrost. Once a high density of herbivores over a vast area has been reached, predators larger than the wolves will have to be introduced to keep the megafauna in check.
Did you know? It is believed anywhere permafrost currently exsists, or even areas burned from forest fire, the mammoth steppe can be re-created. Reducing greenhouse gases. The rate of decomposition of organic matter in the soil where there were fires depends mainly on temperature. Introducing grasses and mammoth steepe slows the process down. The only way to force the soil to retain carbon is to cool it down. For a long time, scientists have known, that dark forests absorb the sun’s rays, while the lighter, snow-covered grasslands reflect them in winter. Having a combination can have positive effects on the permafrost and environment.
Pleistocene progress: -1988–1996: The first grazing experiments began in 1988 at the northeast science station in Chersky with yakutian horses. -1996–2004: In 1996 a 50 ha (125 acre) enclosure was built in Pleistocene Park. As a first step in recreating the ancient landscape, the yakutian horses were introduced, as horses most abundant ungulates. Moose, already present in the region, introduced. The effects of larger animals (mammoths and buffalo) created by using a tank and 8×8 Argo to crush pathways through the willowshrub.
Experiment working: The vegetation in the park started to change. In the areas where the horses grazed, the soil compacted. Mosses, weeds and willow shrub were replaced by grass. Flat grassland is now the dominating landscape inside the park. When air temperature sank to −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter, the temperature of the ground was found to be only –5 °C (+23 °F) under an intact cover of snow, but −30 °C (−22 °F) where the animals had trampled down the snow. The grazers thus help keep permafrost intact, thereby lessening the amount of methane released by the tundra. -2004–2011: A new fence was erected. After complete, reindeer and more moose were brought into the park. A 32 meter (105 foot) high tower was erected in the park, in 2007, that constantly monitors the levels of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the park’s atmosphere. Muskox from Wrangel island were reintroduced in 2010 In 2011, Altai wapiti were introduced -2011–2016: Construction of a new branch begun on the “Wild field section”, and greater energy monitoring stations were put in. -2017–present: yak, and sheep were brought to the park. More plans for future.
Reception & Controversial aspects: Critics admonish that introducing alien species could damage the fragile ecosystem of the existing tundra. Scientist Sergey Zimov replies: “Tundra – that is not an ecosystem. Such systems had not existed on the planet [before the disappearance of the megafauna], and there is nothing to cherish in the tundra. Of course, it would be silly to create a desert instead of the tundra, but if the same site would evolve into a steppe, then it certainly would improve the environment. If deer, foxes, bovines were more abundant, nature would only benefit from this. And people too. However, the danger still exists, of course, you have to be very careful. If it is a revival of the steppes, then, for example, small animals are really dangerous to release without control. As for large herbivores – no danger, as they are very easy to remove again.” Another concern point is a majority of species cant be introduced in harsh conditions. For example, according to some critics, the yakutian horses, would not survive without food supply and human intervention. Mostly in the fall when water freezes and before the snow hits (the horses eat the snow for water, but cant lick the ice as easily).
Positive reception: Project drawdown claims the park as: “100 most substantive solutions to global warming”. Total costs and lifetime savings were monitored in the study. In January 2020, a study from the University of Oxford assessed the viability of the park’s goals. It was estimated, if three large-scale experimental were set up, each containing 1000 animals. Over a ten year period, that 72,000 metric tons of carbon could be held and generate 360,000 US dollars in carbon revenues.
Visitors: The park is a select hub for a small number of journalists; and, international scientists, and students, who come from around the world to conduct their own ecological research and experiments.
Size and administration: Pleistocene Park is a 160 km square scientific nature reserve (Zakaznik) consisting of willow brush, grasslands, swamps, forests and a multitude of lakes. The average temperature in January is about –33 °C; and, in July +12 °C; annual precipitation is 200–250 mm. The reserve is surrounded by a 600 km 2 buffer zone.
Animals: Herbivores: Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus); Elk; Moose (Alces alces); Yakutian horses; Muskox (Ovibos moschatus); and European bison, Bison bonasus).
Muskoxen family: Domestic yak (Bos mutus grunniens); Edilbaevskaya sheep (a domestic breed of sheep); Kalmykian cattle (a domestic breed of cattle adapted for the Mongolian steppe); Plains bison (Bison bison bison); Orenburg fur goat (Capra aegagrus hircus); and, Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).
Carnivores: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx); Tundra wolf (Canis lupus albus); Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus); Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos); Wolverine (Gulo gulo); Red fox (Vulpes vulpes); Sable (Martes zibellina); and, Stoat (Mustela erminea).
Did you know? Harvard universities geneticist George Church, and others are working on a plan to genetically resurrect woolly mammoths.
Animals that could be placed in the park if revived from extinction: Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius); Cave lion (Panthera spelaea); Steppe bison (Bison priscus); Woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis); Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus); and, Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus).
Slip into your own pleistocene freedom. Wander free and create your own natural time of life. Your kind will grow stronger and stronger, as the millennia go on and on and on. Earth may overflow with life one day again. Maybe one day, all of our mistakes may even be taken back. And if it does. And, if we save the planet and be ourselves, that will be the sh*t.
Titles include: mammalogist, palaeontologist, environmentalist, conservationist, explorer, author, science communicator, activist, and scientist. Flannery is a supporter of renewable energy, phasing out coal power and rewilding.
He was raised as a regular kid near Melbourne. At a young age he became aware of marine pollution and its effect on the ecosystem. Later he earned a under grad degree, and achieved his masters and phd degrees from Austriaian universities. He also proclaimed a visiting chair at Harvard. Was a director of the south Australian museum. And, has worked with climate risk Austrailia.
Cool fact: At age 26, he was hired by the mammalogy department of the Australian Museum. He took his first trips to Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and elsewhere, later becoming mammal curator at the museum. He took 15 trips in total to New Guinea starting in 1981, and into the 1990s. After one trip, a tapeworm he found was sent to the parasitologist. It was revealed to be a new species, and was later named ‘Burtiela flanneryi’ after him. Working closely with local tribes to undertake fieldwork. Experiences were later recounted in his book: Throwin Way Leg (1998).
Other memberships and publishing: Flannery has written hundreds of books and articles. Both fiction and non-fiction (mostly). He is a member of the Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists, a governor of WWF-Australia. He was for a time director of the Australian Wildlife Conservancy. He has contributed to over 143 scientific papers. Flannery is a professorial fellow at the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, University of Melbourne. Until mid-2013 he was a professor at Macquarie University and held the Panasonic Chair in Environmental Sustainability.
Palaeontology: In 1980, Tim discovered an dinosaur fossil on the southern coast of Victoria, called the Allosaurid. It was the first from the family known found in Australia. In 1985, he was apart of the team to discover the first Mesozoic mammal fossil discovered in Australia. During the 1980s, Flannery described most of the known pleistocene megafaunal species in New Guinea as well as the fossil record of the phalangerids, a family of possums. As part of his doctoral studies, he reviewed the evolution of macropodidae (kangeroos/wallabies). He has described at least 29 new fossil species, including 11 new genera, and, 3 new subfamilies.
Mammalogy: In the 1990s, Flannery published the Mammals of New Guinea (Cornell press); and, Prehistoric Mammals of Australia and New Guinea (Johns Hopkins press). Both are the most comprehensive reference works on the subjects. The specific name of the greater monkey-faced bat (pteralopex flanneryi), described in 2005, honours Tim for his work.
Climate change communication: In the 1990s, while doing fieldwork in New Guinea, Flannery observed a change in the elevational range of trees. He realised it’s likely to do with the impacts of climate change. Subsequently he began working on climate change more seriously. Shape shifting to campaigning and publicly communicating about climate change. This prominence occasionally created hostility from the media. His academic peers were also initially critical of Flannery for speaking outside of his primary area of expertise. When discussing this in 2009, Flannery said that climate change science was a less established field earlier in his career. And that multiple experts from different fields had shifted to respond to the as well. He claimed publicly funded scientists are obliged to communicate their work and be vocal on important issues. Flannery has frequently discussed the effects of climate change, particularly on Australia, and advocates for mitigation. Regarding links between climate change and the unprecedented recent Austrailian bushfires. He has stated: “I am absolutely certain that [the bushfires are] climate change caused.”
Australian climate commission and climate council: In 2011, Flannery was appointed to head the Climate Commission, to explain climate change, and the need for a carbon price to the Austraian public. By 2013 (after the next election), Flannery and others launched a new body called the Climate Council. He stated that its goals: “to provide independent information on the science of climate change.
Book highlights: The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and People, 1994 A bestseller. The book regards three “future eater” waves of Austrian and New Guinea human migration. The first wave migrated from Southeast Asia approximately 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. The second was polynesian migration to New Zealand and surrounding islands 800 to 3,500 years ago. And, the third and final wave was European colonization at the end of the 18th century. Flannery described the evolution of the first wave of future-eaters: “Sixty thousand or more years ago human technology was developing at what we would consider to be an imperceptible pace. Yet it was fast enough to give the first Australasians complete mastery over the ‘new lands’. Freed from the ecological constraints of their homeland and armed with weapons honed in the relentless arms race of Eurasia, the colonisers of the ‘new lands’ were poised to become the world’s first future eaters.” His book was adapted into a series on television.
Weather makers: history and future impact of climate change, 2005 He spent 5 years writing. The book highlights: sea levels rising, larger storms and species extinction. It also deals with mitigation to reducing emissions, and using solar, and wind power. Other points included the global carbon dictatorship; and, Geothermia. Geothermia, is a city taking advantage of gas reserves on the NSW, Queensland and south Austrialian provincial borders due to climate change. It highlights an urgency to reduce climate change, especially for the larger Austrialian cities.
Article from ‘External frontier’ proposal: “Pleistocene rewilding”: restoring the ecosystems that existed in north America before the arrival of the clovis people and the concomitant disappearance of the north American pleistocene megafauna 13,000 years ago. He was the second major scientist, after Paul S Martin, to recommend restoring ecosystems that existed in north America before the arrival of the clovis people. Its highlights included that in addition to the wolves that have been already re-introduced to Yellowstone national park, ambush predators, such as jaguars and lions should be reintroduced as well. In order to bring the number of elk in control. The closest extant relatives of the species that became extinct around the clovis period could be introduced to North America’s nature reserves as well. For example, he purposed Indian and African elephants could substitute, respectively, for the mammoth and the mastodon. The Chacoan peccary, for its extinct cousin the flat-headed peccary (Platygonus compressus). Llamas and panthers, which still survive outside of the US, should too be brought back to that country.
Did you know? In July 2018, at the King Solomon islands, he played a role in the Kwaio Reconciliation programme. It brought an end to a 91-year-old cycle of killings that stemmed from the murders, in 1927 of British Colonial officers, Bell and Gillies, by Kwaio leader Basiana and his followers.
It is located in Montesquieu-Avantès, in the Ariège département. Near the Spanish border. The cave is named for three brothers (French: trois frères), Max, Jacques, and Louis Begouën, who, along with their father Comte Henri Begouën, discovered it and the signigifance in 1914.
Big info: One of the paintings, known as “The Sorcerer”, is the “most famous and enigmatic human figure” with the features of several different animals. Though given there age, each and exact characteristics remain a matter of debate. Conesyahoo had stated ‘it was an irish elk with a magicians head spitting something’.
Engravings were found in the cave and nearby included what is though to be the earliest representation of an insect. Also appeared were what appear to be several birds, and a cave cricket found on a fragments of a bison bone. On the other walls are whats believed to be: lions, owls, and bison. A horse overlaid with club-like symbols, and an apparent speared brown bear vomiting blood. Aside from the “Sorcerer”, other human-like figures can be seen at Trois-Frères, such as the man-bison, and a character known as the “small sorcerer” who appears to be playing a nose-flute.
Location: The Trois-Freres cave is part of a single cave-complex formed by the Volp River. The complex is divided into three caves; the central Trois-Freres, Enlène to the east, and the Tuc d’Audoubert to the west. The river flows through some of the lower sections. With different galleries sectioned on each level and room.
Did you know: One area, the ‘salle des bisons’ contains two masterfully modeled bison, which were sculpted in clay with a stone spatula-like tool and the artist’s fingers. It is believed the pair are among the largest and finest surviving prehistoric sculptures.
Kapova cave (Капова пещера), Shul’gan-Tash ( капающая вода), dripping water, or Шүлгәнташ in Bashkir. It is a limestone karst cave in the Burzyansky District of Bashkortostan. About 200 km (120 mi) south-east of the city of Ufa, above Kazakhstan. It is in the southern Ural mountains.
In Bashkir tradition. Shulgan was mostly negatively attributed. To the owner of the underworld, or underwater king. Given the history and geology, both the lake and cave also bear part of his name. Bearing a significant part of Russian and the areas folklore and tradition.
Kapova cave entrance: Today, this area of wild dense forest, and high white rocks has changed. It is the habitat of deer, bear, and bashkort bee. Around 10-20 thousand years ago the climate and the landscape was different. Summer was short, while winter months were very long and cold. Much of the landscape was Tundra. In the clefts and caves among the rocks humans huddled together to keep warm. The entrance to the cave is situated on the southern slope of the Sarykuskan mountain. It forms a huge arch of 30 m (98 ft) height. To the left of the entrance to the cave is a lake from which the river Shul’gan originates. Inside the cave flows the underground Shul’gan river. That created the cave. This three-storey cave system is huge. Its about 3 km (1.9 mi) long, with a vertical amplitude of 165 m (541 ft) including siphon underwater cavities, large halls, galleries, underground lakes and the river.
The portal: The mouth of the ‘Shulgantash cave’ is now called the portal. Deep in the portal the Shulgan stream comes up through the earth forming a pool named Blue lake. Its believed the lake is bottomless. Below 33 Meters (108ft) in depth it joins a gigantic underground water cavity. A passageway leads from the portal to the succession of the ground level halls, and galleries. Some are as high and wide as 20-30 meters. The halls and galleries are connected by tunnels of various lengths and shapes. Some of the walls too are covered with calcite sinter. Which is quite deep and intricately shaped. According to scientist P.I. Rychkov, Bashkirs (Bashkorts) usually hid here their famiIies, and horses during wars, and their uprisings. The cattle naturally stayed in the lower floor of the cave, while women, children and old men went upstairs. Food was always stored here.
Cave drawings: These Russian cave drawings, discovered in the late 1950s were the first of there age, beyond France and Spain. And, unrivaled versus anywhere else on earth. For many centuries all the thousands of year old cave drawings here had been covered with a semi-transparent calcite crust. In 1976, a known archaeologist O.N. Bader was asked to begin cleaning some of the pictures off. Traces of primitive, human life, spread, red paint, as well as, ornament of geometrical figures. Neolithic signs (and, older) of human life are in the large cave system. Two-coloured pictures of long-haired horses, beside them a trapezium like geometrical figure, and a little further, a group of geometrical signs. There is a picture of an anthropoid creature, the only one in Shulgantash cave. Ancient people, various animals: horses, rhinos, bulls, bisons, and mammoths. Geometrical signs and figures. In all, there are many drawings in ‘Kapova, Shul’gan-Tash, dripping water or Шүлгәнташ cave’. Still being analyzed daily. Size varies from 44 to 112 centimeters. Uranium-thorium dating showed that the oldest drawings in the Kapova cave were made 36,400 years ago. That’s amazing.
Underground lake in the cave: In one of the halls you can see the river Shulgan in its underground flow. A scuba diver traveled almost 330 meters (1082 feet or 1/3km) into a siphon inside the cave having finding no end to it. Due to the geology of the gave. Silvery fringe of calcite icicles hang from some of the ceilings. And, among the sublime decorations of the cave are “milky rivers” composed of there crystals. Fragile and crisp. They haven`t become solid like pearls yet. Adding discrepant beauty to the somewhat dark underworld place. On some of the walls are crusts of marble onyx, in some places half a metre deep.
Did you know? Marble onyx has only been found in caves.
Discovery, excavation: It had long been said, locals were afraid to visit or document about the cave. The first written information was in 1760. Initial Russian academy of sciences member, P.I. Rychkov gave a detailed description of the cave ground level in his article: “Description of a cave located in the Orenburg province near the Belaya River, which of all the caves in Bashkiria are the most glorious and revered”. From then on, other scientists, foresters and locals begain documenting and taking explorations into the cave. Even offering tours for explorers and those so inclined. Beginning around the 1960s, employees of Bashkir state university begin compiling a real map of the cave. A number of years later, when some of the scientists died, and they decided to close the cave in 1979. When re-opened in the 1980s, dating technology had also increased. Scientists were able to analyze the drawings greater. And, in addition, find a clay fat lamp; stone, mostly flint tools; pieces of ocher, jewelry in the form of beads; and, pendants made of stone and small shells of fossil mollusks. Bones of animals of the pleistocene: mammoth, cave bear, fox, hare, marmot were also found. Even pikas, and jerboa. Many large archaeologists agree Shulgan-Tash cave was a sanctuary and one of the most significant pieces of history in Russia. Check it out today.
New Mexico Mammoth Bones from 37,000 years ago almost double the amount of time humans have occupied North America.
Hiking at the Colorado Plateau in northern New Mexico, a man spotted a chunk of tusk protruding from the surface.
Overlooking a professors home. When investigated, an extensive collection of broken and scattered mammoth bones were discovered. Including ribs, broken cranial bones, a molar, bone fragments, and stone cobbles.
A team of scientists led by researchers from the University of Texas now believe human beings settled in North America much earlier before. Evidence comes from the excavated bones of a mother mammoth and her calf that were apparently killed and butchered by indigenous Americans.
“There really are only a couple efficient ways to skin a cat, so to speak,” The scientist said. “The butchering patterns are quite characteristic.”
Many of the fossilized New Mexico mammoth bones showed signs of blunt-force fractures , meaning they’d been broken into pieces intentionally. Other bones had been shaped into knives for use in butchering activities. The wear and tear on these bone flake utensils, accompanies with christilyne ash and fire pit, made it clear that humans had been processing the mammoth remains to remove the meat and hides.
Did you know: Scientists use cat scans to x-ray and check test the bones. In the vertebrae and rib bones, there were puncture wounds, which means they had had drained them of their fat for cooking.
Is it insights gained from archaeology, climate and the environment? Were the happiest humans truly those strong and most willing to find and hunt woolly rhino or mammoth? Giant cats, bears, dog, sloth and armadillo? Were they big tough Log and stone builders?? Large enough to keep a living space warm and pest free?
What defined leadership of cultures, and races of people? For example. Was it those willing to explore and travel to cooler and more rugged areas of the northern Europe? How about those who went up and beyond the mid western north America and Canadian glaciers aged 15 thousand years ago? What about Beringa and Greenland? Are these pest log chimney hunters the greatest humans to have ever lived?
Lets look at bibliographies of individual sites and groups. Danish, some german and northern europeans were identified as building some of the first sailable log boats. An answer could be yes. These people were tough, probably got a little wet. They saw, hunted, killed, built and survived through some of the most beautiful tough landscapes and animals earth will ever know.
How about history as a narrative based on predictable archaeology? Many middle eastern and southern settlements eventually declined, or went back and forth temporarily. Vindicated perhaps it was there strong hunters, builders that probably moved when bad things were happening. They exercised there freedoms, and skills by going elsewhere, and more likely north.
Consider from within? Did you like eating raw plants, and meat? Darkness? Making things from nothing? Cooler unpredictable weather? Better humans enjoy this. They were not predominately affected by temporal scales of history. They wanted to thrive. Consider deep thinking, or deep history. Linking archaeology, anthropology; with pest control, chimney cleaning, and log building. That’s Groundbreaking. Its big.
Historical and methodological techniques reconstructing timelines. Mostly relate to continents, and alpine wetland settlements. Where food and supplies were readily available. Wasn’t easy. Annual dating of events; houses/shelter, and year specific settlement growth. That were relevant to these alpine wetland or landscape specific histories. Is proven where the quantity of recovered material (or data). Is significant enough to allow both typological and scientific dating.
Methods for this were already seriated. That is, things, order things. With absolute chronologies (stratographic and radiometric dating) conferred around 1980.
Precise chronologies are the only form of narrative. And, so must be considered with respect to there respective partners in Europe, Africa, north and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia and so on.
Using one of the greatest timelines in prehistory. Theoretical concepts including deep knowledge and dating approaches should be applauded. Not only for the neolithic hunting history of snagging a great beast. But for the good of neolithic architecture, pest control, chimney cleaning and log cabin building in general.
There had long been talk of a secret bank, and group of men inhabiting a land stretched far and wide. In Greece, legends spoke of it, receding from the last glacial maximum, from northern Spain; to England, Ireland, Scotland; between, France, Holland; and extending thu Germany to even Denmark, Sweden and Norway. In 1931, a famous discovery made the headlines when a trawler named ‘Colinda’ hauled up a lump of peat while fishing near the Ower Bank, 25 miles off the English coast. To the astonishment of the fisherman, the peat contained an ‘ornate barbed antler point’ used for harpooning fish that dated from between 9,000-4,000 BC. This was what started the ‘imminent rush’, to began researching ‘doggerland’ and the ‘doggerbank’.
Around 8200 years ago, after the storegga slide, and the water enraged typhoon hit. For about 1500 years, all that was left was ‘doggerbank’. Until more glaciers melted, ‘doggerbank’ was above water but when more glaciers melted, it became submerged. Around 7000 years ago. And, so began the separation of mainland Europe, from England, and other area islands, that eventually all almost became under water.
What is a ‘ornate barb antler point’?
An ‘ornate barbed antler point’ was probably an elk or deer, possibly something larger like mammoth, bear or cave lion too. Sharpened with a blade, or, bone, flint and/or sharp chert stone piece designed for cutting. Similar to big arrowheads. The neolithic fisherman would take turns with spears, and harpoons. Hunting fish and deer mostly. And, all that’s more is gossip and folklore.
What is ‘doggerbank’?
Named after the ‘doggers’, or dutch fishing boats, from medieval times. They were especially useful for cod fishing; dodging storms and catching waves. The actual modern ‘doggerbank’ not only houses wind farms but also a large portion of sand. About 100km east of England. Whereas the wind farms are further out. It was around 7000 years ago that this area, rich and fertile, went under water.
What is the ‘imminent rush’ in researching ‘doggerland’?
Earth passes thru cycles, and even though theories differ about global warming, and climate control, one thing is for sure. Many suffer and get displaced. There was a massive cycle that ended around 8200 years ago, and that was probably brought on by the last glacial maximum (33-14,000 years ago) and ‘great event’ 11,700 years ago. In understanding it, we may be able to prevent the same from happening again.
Skeletal parts, including jaws and teeth, of the giant jaguar was discovered on the Platte river, of Nebraska, in 1827, by Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden. He sent it to Joesph Leidy, at the academy of natural sciences in Philidelphia. Who was working on identifying some of the recent pleistocene megafauna discoveries.
Beginning around the 1840s, more findings came forward, from Flordia, Maryland to Tennessee. Even Oregon, California (La Brae), and southwestern Mexico had remains of the giant jaguar. More pieces became available to scientists, and in the early 1920s, they were able to differentiate and classify the different subspecies, sizes and genetics further.
Does something standing 12 feet tall, weighing 1500lbs, and that can travel 40 miles per hour entice you. How about limb crushing, vice like teeth designed for shearing? Would you be afraid?
The Fastest Running Bear That Ever Lived In quaternary North America, the late pleistocene represents the peak of ursid diversity. The giant short-faced bear (arctodus simus), or ‘bulldog bear’ was very different than what we have today. Its extended legs and toes directed straight forward compared to today’s bears. They allowed it to travel, larger, faster and with crushing dimensions.
Where was it located? The bulldog, or giant short faced bear, was mostly located west of Mississippi; up, down and around the Rocky Mountains. It was also known in other areas across the continent, including Mexico and Alaska. However, around 11 or 12 thousand years ago, something strange happened. Climate change, loss of diet habitat; combinations of other late pleistocene factors; including possibly the competition with humans and herbivores, extinct the giant short faced bear.
Domination: food, and origin(s)
The giant short faced bears scientific name arctodus, actually came from Greek, and means “bear tooth”. Eating up to an estimated 30-40lb every day, it was once the most common bear in North America. Its fossils were discovered, in northern California, at the potter creek cave in late 1800. A long time since the late pleistocene, we had only recently been discovering about its dominative force.
Bear enticement nowadays comes in the forms of black, brown, grizzly and polar. Thoughtfully 10,000 years ago, during neolithic times, the arctodus simius, or ‘bulldog bear’, setted president for fear factor, and fear fighting for survival.
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