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Many animals, from the very large to the odd lived during the ice age. Harlan’s Ground Sloth seems to be one of the most bizarre animals from that era. A mix of large and odd, these large, furry animals are related to modern sloths, armadillos, and anteaters. Unlike its smaller modern cousin, Harlan’s ground sloths could be as tall as modern elephants and as heavy as a small car.
Sheer size was not the only odd part of a Harlan’s ground sloth. These giants were bulky, with short necks, powerful chests, and massive jaws. The sloth also had three claws per hand for digging, grabbing, or defending themselves. Just like armored armadillos today, the sloth had a protective coat of rough, brown fur, with nickel-sized bone plates underneath their skin. Scientists called this the “dermal ossicles” or bone skin
Ground sloths migrated to North America during the ice age. They spent their lives wondering open-grasslands with water sources, like rivers and lakes. Using its stubby snout and sense of smell, the sloth may have found and eat grasses, shrubs, and plants with flowers. The need for water sources may have brought Harlan’s Ground Sloths to New Mexico and southern US during the ice age. Before the sand dunes existed, a giant lake called Lake Otero filled the area. It provided a water source that attracted many ice age animals, including Harlan’s Ground Sloths.
Today on the old dried lakebed of Lake Otero or Alkali Flat, New Mexico, Harlan’s Ground Sloths left clues that they were here. Many fossilized footprints are visible. They had crescent shaped footprints. Their back feet twisted inward when they walked. This made them walk slowly, almost like waddling. These large strong slow moving animals became easy targets for daring predators such as Paleo-Human hunters.
The Giant ground sloth of course does not live today. Around 10,000 years ago, the large ice age animals died out. Scientists still debate why the larger animals disappeared. The Harlan ground sloth is reminder of a time long past however with modern technology maybe one day could be brought back.
Here some basic rights:
1) Freedom of movement without permits or controls for citizens;
2) Freedom from confiscation of private property;
3) Freedom of expression speech and the press;
4) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure;
5) Freedom from arbitrary arrest, delays of justice and judgment with a trial by jury;
6) Freedom to defend one self with arms;
7) Freedom to discriminate between people you wish to associate or do business with;
8) Freedom to engage in any activity not violating the fundamental rights of others;
9) Freedom of ownership and control of private property;
10) Freedom from redistribution of income by government via confiscatory taxation;
11) Freedom to contract freely with other willing parties without government regulation or licensing; and
12) Freedom to choose how to medically care for yourself and family.
In 1963, despite fact project would eventually flood dozens of modern villages and ancient sites. The government of Syrian Arab Republic, decided to create dams on upper Euphrates river. Culminating a series of excavation and archaeological rescue operations. Among them, an extraordinary neolithic site. Abu Hureyra.
In a short span of less than 35 years. They gathered more information about the human being transition to agriculture, then anywhere previously; with more details. Using + setting the standard for new techniques, and with less time.
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The Woolly Mammoth is a prehistoric animal who became extinct about 3900 years ago when the last ice age ended. Scientists have a lot of information about what this animal looked like thanks to the discovery of frozen mammoth carcasses in Alaska and Siberia. In 2012, in an area where he walked his dogs, an 11 year old Russian kid discovered the remnants of what turned out to be a very well preserved 30,000 year old woolly Mammoth. In 2013, in Russia, scientists discovered a baby woolly mammoth in an ice tomb. Every so often a Woolly Mammoth body parts will be discovered as well.
Woolly Mammoth Facts
• In 1796, Georges Cuvier, a French Zoologist, was the first to identify the Woolly Mammoth as an extinct species of the elephant.
• Similar in size and features to the Asian elephant, the adult Woolly Mammoth was approximately 10 feet tall (3 meters) and weighted about 6 tons (5443 kg). Newborns weighed approximately 200 pounds (90kg) at birth. Females are less.
• Early humans killed Woolly Mammoths for a number of reasons. They ate the meat, but they also made art, homes and tools out of the bones and tusks, and fur to keep warm.
• Why did the Woolly Mammoth become extinct? A definitive reason for why they became extinct is not available; however most scientists believe climate change and hunting caused its demise.
• Although ethical questions remain, the possibility exists that scientists could use the Woolly Mammoth’s genetic material with a female elephants, to one day clone and recreate the animal.
• Using there big molar teeth, the Woolly Mammoth was a herbivore that ate a variety of leaves, fruits, berries, nuts, and twigs.
• Similar to the rings on a tree, or clogged arteries on a human, scientists can determine the age and health of a Woolly Mammoth by the rings on its tusks.
• Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean, may have been the last known home of about 500-1000 Woolly Mammoths until just before 1700 BC when they fully became extinct.
Woolly Mammoths are different
• The Woolly Mammoth lived in extremely cold, arctic environments. Using there thick skin, fur, and small ears, they became well adapted to survive in this type of habitat.
• As the name suggests, the Woolly Mammoth was covered with fur but to really keep them warm, they had about four inches of pure fat for insulation underneath their skin.
• The ears and tail of the Woolly Mammoth were relatively short so they would not get frostbite and to minimize heat loss. Modern day elephants have ears that reach 180 cm (71″) where the Woolly Mammoth’s ears only reached about 30 cm (12″).
• Blood samples taken by scientists have determined that the hemoglobin of the Woolly Mammoth was even adapted to the cold environment, allowing the animal’s tissue to be supplied with oxygen no matter what the temperature.
• The jaw and teeth of the Woolly Mammoth were more vertical than modern elephants and it is believed that it allowed them to more easily feed on grass.
• The long prominent tusks of the Woolly Mammoth could reach up to 15 feet (4.5 meters) long. They would have been used for pushing away ice and snow as well as fighting and defending.
It is believed if the Woolly mammoth is cloned, it will have problems digesting due to the difference of thousands of years of microbes (things and bacteria in stomach that help digest food). There are projects at Harvard and other institutions looking into it right now! There are also ethical questions about using female elephants embryo’s, a number of times, to hybrid, then re-create the species (3-4 breeding cycles after). What do you think? Do Canadians, Russians and Scandinavians stand a better chance to recreate the species, using there arctic north, perhaps to re-invigorate post covid tourisms, with a modern day computer coded and critter cloned Disney land?
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Neolithic Site 32km SW of St. Louis. In upper Mississippi valley, 2.5km west of Mississippi River, at confluence of 4 North American drainage basins (upper Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, and Tennessee rivers). Where 30% of American contiguous land mass is drained.
Mastodon remains were identified, including butchering and human presence.
Laurentide ice sheet appears to have reach its max about 350km to east. By time of occupation (estimate, early neolithic), glacier tied 800km north (present day upper Great Lakes basin). The site was probably situated in mixed deciduous (oak, hickory) forest, mixed with prairie grasses. 127meters above sea level. The sites axis is oriented southwest to northwest, 2300 square meters. There is a 20m high limestone bluff in the north. With unobstructed views of the Mississippi River south east, and rock creek valleys to the south and west.
Founded by French/Creole fur trader, and St. Louis co-founder Pierre Chouteu in 1790s. The earliest known excevations were in 1839, by Albert Koch. Who recovered a American Mastodon (mammut americanum) for display at his St. Louis museum. Numerous others began excavation including businessmen who opened a museum at the site around 1900. And, Smithsonium archaeologists who couldn’t declare what was cultural remains, and introduced there after. Modern era of professional investigation began in 1970s, when government bought, in preparation to convert the mastodon state historic site.
7 discrete strata were identified including extinct and entact large mammals: mastodon, long nosed peccary and Harlans ground sloth. Numerous species of small vertebrates, and a large fire pit with Harlans ground sloth.
Though relatively few artifacts were recovered, apart from mastodon, presence of diverse abundant animal species,(white tail, fish, amphibians, reptiles (turtles, birds, small mammals), suggests site was adaptable to environmental conditions.
Blackwater draw, NM
Lehner, Murray springs, and Naco, AZ
Kimmswick bone bed, MI
Bonfire shelter, TX
Central Alaska (broken mammoth, dry creek, swan point, and walker rd.) Alaska
Elfin de mundo, Mexico
Calico mtn, Cali
Pendejo cave, NM
Tule springs, NV
Pedra Furada, Piavi, Brazil
Meadowcraft rockshelter, Penns.
Monte Verde, Llanquihue, Chilie
Cactus hill, Virginia
Paisley 5 made pt caves, Oregon
Schaefer & heblor mammoth, Wisconsin
Buttermilk creek, Texas (D Freilkin and Gault)
Taima-taima, Venezuela & Tibia, Columbia
Bluefish caves, Yukon