What is your interpretation of neolithic architecture?
On the largest island, of Orkneys, in Scotland, are 10 homes, made of earth dammed flagstone.
Included are stone hearths, beds, and cupboards. Because of the preservation of earth dammed flagstone, It is still one of Europes most complete Neolithic villages. They even had stone sewers that took water to and from the ocean.
Causing damage and over 200 known deaths, in 1850 a storm uncovered Skara Brae. Owners of the property discovered four houses but abandoned the project 18 years later. Eventually the site was raided, in 1913 by a group who took away unknown artifacts. In 1924, a storm swept away one of the houses, and it was decided in 1927, that the University of Edinburghs must properly investigate this site.
The houses were basically pit houses (sunk into mounds), with protection from rain. They were about 430 square feet, with stone hearths for heating and cooking. Given there remote location, it was not known what they burned (seaweed, driftwood, waste, peat, cattle, sheep, fishbones, everything?) Though comfy, it would have been hard to have more than 50 people there.
In 1972, the university determined the site was occupied from around 3200 BC to 2500 BC, they unearthed grains, ivory pins, killer whale teeth, walrus ivory, carving, body paints, neolithic weavings and more. There have been all kinds of theories about the people there.
Historical environment Scotlands, “Statement of Significance” for the site sums it up well and is:
The monuments at the heart of Neolithic Orkney and Skara Brae proclaim the triumphs of the human spirit in early ages and isolated places. They were approximately contemporary with the mastabas of the archaic period of Egypt (first and second dynasties), the brick temples of Sumeria, and the first cities of the Harappa culture in India, and a century or two earlier than the Golden Age of China. Unusually fine for their early date, and with a remarkably rich survival of evidence, these sites stand as a visible symbol of the achievements of early peoples away from the traditional centres of Civilizations.
Including in theories of who lived at Skara Brae, are popular theories of magicians, and a low wizards road to additional sites in southern England. Here’s to civilizations!
During the past 10 years, for the 1st time in 2-3 generations, life expectancy has been dropping.
Researching Neolithic Architecture. And, understanding, and being the best, at 3 lively, and, proactive services: pest control, chimney cleaning and log cabin building.
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-Fir, spruce & cedar logs are abundantly sourced nearby. Thereby making more sustainable than almost any other building material. (other see: tee-pees and pit houses);
-Grade A (>12”) douglas fir logs, cedar, and spruce have excellent strength to weight ratio, even compared with concrete;
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Many animals, from the very large to the odd lived during the ice age. Harlan’s Ground Sloth seems to be one of the most bizarre animals from that era. A mix of large and odd, these large, furry animals are related to modern sloths, armadillos, and anteaters. Unlike its smaller modern cousin, Harlan’s ground sloths could be as tall as modern elephants and as heavy as a small car.
Sheer size was not the only odd part of a Harlan’s ground sloth. These giants were bulky, with short necks, powerful chests, and massive jaws. The sloth also had three claws per hand for digging, grabbing, or defending themselves. Just like armored armadillos today, the sloth had a protective coat of rough, brown fur, with nickel-sized bone plates underneath their skin. Scientists called this the “dermal ossicles” or bone skin
Ground sloths migrated to North America during the ice age. They spent their lives wondering open-grasslands with water sources, like rivers and lakes. Using its stubby snout and sense of smell, the sloth may have found and eat grasses, shrubs, and plants with flowers. The need for water sources may have brought Harlan’s Ground Sloths to New Mexico and southern US during the ice age. Before the sand dunes existed, a giant lake called Lake Otero filled the area. It provided a water source that attracted many ice age animals, including Harlan’s Ground Sloths.
Today on the old dried lakebed of Lake Otero or Alkali Flat, New Mexico, Harlan’s Ground Sloths left clues that they were here. Many fossilized footprints are visible. They had crescent shaped footprints. Their back feet twisted inward when they walked. This made them walk slowly, almost like waddling. These large strong slow moving animals became easy targets for daring predators such as Paleo-Human hunters.
The Giant ground sloth of course does not live today. Around 10,000 years ago, the large ice age animals died out. Scientists still debate why the larger animals disappeared. The Harlan ground sloth is reminder of a time long past however with modern technology maybe one day could be brought back.
Here some basic rights:
1) Freedom of movement without permits or controls for citizens;
2) Freedom from confiscation of private property;
3) Freedom of expression speech and the press;
4) Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure;
5) Freedom from arbitrary arrest, delays of justice and judgment with a trial by jury;
6) Freedom to defend one self with arms;
7) Freedom to discriminate between people you wish to associate or do business with;
8) Freedom to engage in any activity not violating the fundamental rights of others;
9) Freedom of ownership and control of private property;
10) Freedom from redistribution of income by government via confiscatory taxation;
11) Freedom to contract freely with other willing parties without government regulation or licensing; and
12) Freedom to choose how to medically care for yourself and family.
In 1963, despite fact project would eventually flood dozens of modern villages and ancient sites. The government of Syrian Arab Republic, decided to create dams on upper Euphrates river. Culminating a series of excavation and archaeological rescue operations. Among them, an extraordinary neolithic site. Abu Hureyra.
In a short span of less than 35 years. They gathered more information about the human being transition to agriculture, then anywhere previously; with more details. Using + setting the standard for new techniques, and with less time.
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