In greek, teratornis merriami, teratornis woodburnensis and maybe even a teratornis olsoni from Cuba are known as “wonder birds”

Terratornis was a genus of huge North American birds of prey.

Taxonomy:
1) Teratornis merriami: Because of the numbers foud at Rancho La Brae and the tar pits, is is by far the most researched species. Over a hundred specimens have been found. It stood about almost 30inches (or 75cm) tall with estimated wingspan of almost 3.8 metres (11.5 to 12.5 ft). Its weight has been estimated at 10 to 15 kilos.
2) Teratornis woodburnensis: In 1999, at Legion Park, Woodburn, Oregon. Parts of the teratornis woodburnesis were found. There was a humerus,
parts of the cranium, beak, sternum, and vertebrae. Scientists were able to estimate a wingspan of over 4 meters (14 ft). The find dated
to about 12,000 years ago, during the late pleistocene. In combination with this ‘wonder bird’ find. A stratum containing remains of megafauna such as mammoth, mastodon, ground sloths, and early human occupantion was discovered at the site.
3) Another form, “Teratornis” olsoni, was described from the Pleistocene of Cuba, but its affinities are not completely resolved; it might not be a teratorn, but has also been placed in its own genus, Oscaravis. There are also undescribed fossils from southwestern Ecuador, but apart from these forms, teratorns were restricted to North America.

Even when as large as these 4 meter wing spans (almost 15 feet). Bird fossils are very hard to find. It took ten thousand years for scientists to identify the hundreds of teratornis fossils mostly from California, Oregon, southern Nevada, Arizona, and Florida.

Description
As in all modern birds, finger bones of ‘wonder birds’ were fused. Though, part of there index finger formed a shelf. It aided in hard take offs, and not when availably enabled to utilize drafts of strong upcurrents. Their legs were strong, there feet could hold prey and tear off pieces. Though, its believed there short length was not quite as forceful as some other birds of prey. Teratorns (or ‘wonder birds’) should have been able to take off by simply jumping and beating there wings. Because its legs were smaller, it seems to have been batter adapted for utilizing a short run into the wind, or off a large tree, ledge or cliff, as some other height point like birds do. They probably inhabited cliffs and rugged terrain, where they could take off and soar through the air easily.

Paleobiology, Diet and Feeding Habits
Analysis of functional morphology of skull, its larger bill and ability to spread its mandibles and swallow its prey whole. Suggest it was an active and carnivorous predator rather than a scavenger. Similar to condors. Other viewpoints note that like many old world vultures that possess large bills. It allowed them to probe deeper into large carcasses.
Small and sideward facing eyes and there low skull are also consistent with a scavenging lifestyle. For these crazy birds, small prey such as
frogs, lizards, snakes, young birds, and rodents were swallowed whole. Larger mammels or carion would have been fed on similar to condors or
vultures.

Locomotion
An analysis of the teratornis pelvic area and stout; and, columnar hind leg bones suggests that its legs had greater anteroposterior ability than condors. And, that they were agily, well-suited for walking and stalking prey on the ground. More similarl to storks and turkeys.
Opposite, their flight was similar to that of condors. The large condor birds fly by means of soaring on rising up-currents. Generally weak currents are subject to sudden changes in strength and direction. Their ability to react to these, sometimes sudden current changes, and maintain flight is essential. Contrary to some other birds who rely more on current. There ability to deal with wind, draft, and current changes. Has to do with their emarginated primary feathers. Which can separate, adapt and move independently during flight. Because of there size, they needed it.

Habitat
Wonderbirds legs are quite short for it to take flight by just running on flat ground like some birds do. Because of this it has been hypothisied teratornis started at heights where it could take off, flap its large wings a few times, and soar through the air easily.
These birds were thought to have been attracted to tar pits by struggling Pleistocene megafauna. Cats, mammoth, sloth and other fauna were attracted to the water that would pool on top of the tar. The teratorns sometimes would fight, or struggle with they megafauna and fall victim to the sludgy deposits. Yikes.
At the tar or sludge deposits, vultures and other birds were also present. Teratornis would have been also adapted to hunt for smaller animals which also would had been around the pools.


Like eagles, skull and bill shape analysis identifys that fish may have also constituted a large portion of the ‘wonder birds’ diet. Though not quite as developed as an eagles legs. Fish are slippery and can be large. They had strong legs, stout claws, and gripping power. Its more likely they hunted like osprey, which also explains why it was significant at Rancho La Brae. They were probably fighting or struggling with pleistocene megafauna, as well as other birds.

Perhaps the Teratornis or ‘wonder bird’, are what some native Americans, aboriginals, and people spoke of mythologically. And, about a thunder-bird. No matter what the cause these were some big birds. Lets hear it for the giant north American bird of prey. Teratornis’s. Your wonder bird.

In 1867, in a field in Denmark, a little boy discovered something magical. Hindsgavl Dagger is Hindsgavldolken

It was immediately brought to the property managers attention. He offered the boy the equivelant of 90 dollars, and he couldn’t refuse. The manager then gifted it to the owner of the estate.  Basse Fonss of Hinsgavl Manor.

Hingsgavl manor was apart of the Hindsgavl. It’s the pieces of land that connect Frederica and Middlefart (centre of Denmark).

As the Exposition Universelle at Paris approached in 1889. Danish collectors realized they needed something big. The museum never lent out objects but always sent copies.  Since Hindsgavldolken was private owned, Basse Fonss was approached. He agreed to lend it out. 


After the Exposition universelle, the museum and collectors were so impressed with its attraction and features. They made Basse an offer he couldn’t refuse.   

About:
Production of stone daggers continued into the bronze age. Especially in the north. It’s believed this dagger was produced around 4000 years ago. It is almost 30cm long, and the blade thickness is less than 1cm. It shines a beautiful black and brown.

Did you know? The 100 krone danish bank note (about 15.5$ usd) features Hindsgavldolken, or Hindsgavl Dagger.

Discovered around 1904, nothrotheriops shastensis is the Shasta ground sloth. Giving you the fancy name and statistics you see here today.

In northern California, paleontologist William Sinclair is believed to identified nothrotheriops shastensis fossils during an exploration at Potter Creek Cave. These first identified fossils included a incomplete mandibular ramus, 14 molars, and a few other bits and pieces. They were sent to the university of California museum of Paleontology giving us the name and statistics you see today.


Fossil remains of nothrotheriops shastensis have also been found in Anza-Borrego Desert, Rancho La Brea, and Del Mar. Fossilized remains of the genus nothrotheriops (not identified as to species) have also been found in National City and Sonora, Mexico. It is believed nothrotheriops shastensis evolved in south America around 35 million years ago, and migrated into north America, starting around 8 million years ago. Wow. That’s a lot.

Did you know? Fossils of sloths in caves are somewhat a unknown. Some scientists have proposed that the caves were used as nurseries, since fossils from juvenile sloths have been found there. Yet another theory suggests that sloths used caves as a source for special minerals in their diets. Like iron, calcium, or? Even scientists have purposed sloths getting stuck in caves or defending themselves from envious smilodon, scimitar, mountain bear, or group of dire wolf or lions.

Shasta ground sloth from La Bre’s tar pits 1199

In the 1930s, large amounts of Shasta ground sloth were discovered in La Brae’s tar pits. As indicated by the tons and tons of fossils. It probably attracted many other predators and friends there. Almost all Shasta ground sloths remains have been found in the west. Especially in the American southwest.

Description, build and size:
250 kilograms (551 lb) in weight. About 2.75 metres (or 9.0 ft) from snout to tail tip length.
Current living relatives include the tree sloths, and more distantly the anteaters, and armadillos.


Did you know? Large hyoid bones in some sloths’ throats suggest that some may have had well-developed, prehensile tongues similar to that of a giraffe, that aided in feeding.

Paleobiology:
Nothrotheriops behaved like all typical ground sloths of north and south America. Feeding on various plants like the desert globemallow, cacti, yucca, agaves, Joshua trees, and mesquite. It was hunted by various local predators, dire wolves and Smilodon, from which the sloths may have defended themselves by standing upright on hindlegs and tail and swiping with their long foreclaws.

Did you know? The Shasta ground sloth is believed to have played an important role in the dispersal of yucca brevifolia, or Joshua tree seeds. Preserved dung belonging to the sloth has been found to contain Joshua tree leaves and seeds, confirming that they fed on the trees. Scientists suggest that the lack of Shasta ground sloths aiding to disperse the seeds to more favourable climates is causing the trees to decline.

Additionally, in the southwest of north America, there is an assortment 6-8 areas including caves around 11,000 years ago, with evidence of nothrotheiops shastensis. The best known specimen of Shasta ground sloth is from a lava tube in Aden crater, New Mexico. Its body was found with hair and tendon still preserved. This nearly complete specimen is on display at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History in New Haven, Connecticut. Lets here it for the Shasta ground sloth nothrotheriops shastensis.

Font-de-Gaume is a well known cave in south west France

Located near Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil in the Dordogne department.
Font-de-Gaume cave contents contain paintings in several colours dating to almost 30,000 years.

While exploring the area, in 1901 Denis Peyrony discovered the paintings.

Prehistoric people lived in the Dordogne valley around 25000 thousand years ago. The cave was inhabited for several thousand years. Something must have happened. Because there after, the cave is believed to be long forgotten.

Many of the drawings date from around 19,000 years ago. The most famous is of 5 bison, and was discovered by accident in the 1960s when scientists were cleaning the cave.
More than 230 figures are believed to have been recorded in the cave. Included is 80 bison, 40 horses and 20 mammoths. Some say there are even more yet to be discovered.

Did you know? 200 of the paintings are in multi colour. Making Font-de-Gaume one of the best examples of polychrome (multi colour) paintings other than Lascaux.

Check it out today.

Cap Blanc rock shelter is a limestone rock shelter with sculptures, and magdalenian women. It is in the west of France.

In 1908 Cap Blanc was discovered under supervision, while others worked nearby uncovering Lascaux and the Lascaux cave. While digging they found one of the most impressive carvings from the upper paleolithic.
Following the uncovering of this, the carving and additional frieze, in 1911, they built protective walls around the area. It included lowering the floor. And, at which point one of the workers hit a skull. It was Magdalenian women.

Located in the Marquay commune on the right bank of the Beune River, a few kilometers west of Eyzies-de-Tayac, in Dordogne.

What is a frieze? A frieze is a broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.

The frieze depicts a number of animals, some in haut-relief, dating back 15,000 years. These include ten horses (one measuring 2.20 m long), at least three bison, ibex and several incomplete figures. The sculpted frieze occupies 13 of the 16 meters of the shelter.
Some of the carving are as much as 30 cm deep. Red ochre covers much of the frieze and some of the area around it is now difficult to see. Among other flint tools probably used to create the frieze were found with the Magdalenian women and include burins and scrapers.

The skeleton known as Magdalenian women is that of an early modern human dating from 13,000 to 11,000 BCE, during the Magdalenian period. It is the most complete upper paleolithic skeleton in northern Europe. When Magdalenian women was acquired in 1926 for the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois, by Henry Field, then curator of Physical Anthropology. It was hailed as one of the most significant acquisitions the large museum ever made. On the first day the precious skeleton was exhibited, tens of thousands of visitors flocked to the museum to see it.

In 1910 the site was classified as a French historical monument. Currently there are guided tours, a museum and replica of magdelenian women. Be sure to check it out!

In the environment surrounding Eyzies-de-Tayac Sireuil village. Lascaux is located some distance from the major concentrations of decorated caves and inhabited sites. With cave drawings estimated to 16 or 17 thousand years.

The area has no fewer than 37 decorated caves and shelters, as well as an even greater number of habitation sites from the upper paleolithic (cave man) era. These sites are the highest concentration in Europe.
Geologically, the Vézère drainage basin covers one fourth of the département of the Dordogne (river). At its centre point, the river’s course is marked by a series of turns flanked by high limestone cliffs.

The entrance to the Lascaux Cave was discovered by 18-year-old Marcel Ravidat when his dog, Robot, fell in a hole, in 1940. It was getting late in the year, and in an dangerous area, so he decided to return with some friends another day. They entered carefully through a 15m or 50 feet shaft. The teenagers discovered that the cave walls were covered with depictions of animals. Some dating to an estimated 17,000 years.

6,000 figures: animals, human figures, and abstract signs, in about 600 areas were found.
Using mineral pigments, red, yellow, and black colours were crushed and mixed from a complex multiplicity of plants and minerals. Included was iron compounds such as iron oxide (ochre), hematite, and goethite, As well as manganese-containing pigments. These were a little more advanced than taking charcoal from a stick and drawing on the wall. Many of the images are now precisely studied. 364 paintings are horses, as well as 90 paintings of horned deer. Also represented are cattle and bison, each representing 4 to 5% of the images. There are a bunch of other unique images, includes seven felines, a bird, a bear, a rhinoceros, and a human.

The most famous section of the cave is the Hall of the Bulls where bulls, equines, aurochs, stags, and even a cave bear is depicted. One of the 36 animals represented here is a bull. It is 5.2 metres (17 ft 1 in) long. The largest animal discovered so far in cave art. And, some of the bulls in this drawing appear to be in motion.
On some of the other cave walls, unique art methods were used. It is believed colour was applied as a suspension of pigment in either animal fat or calcium-rich cave groundwater or clay, and applied using swabbed or blotted paint, instead of brush. In a few other areas, the colour was applied by spraying the pigments by blowing the mixture through a tube. Many images are faint or totally deteriorated. Where the rock surface is softer, some designs were incised into the stone.

Did you know? After the cave had been opened, 15 years later, by 1955, carbon dioxide, heat, humidity, and other contaminants produced by 1,200 visitors per day had visibly damaged the paintings. As air condition deteriorated, fungi and lichen increasingly infested the walls. Consequently, the cave was closed to the public in 1963, and instead, it was decided 4 replicas get created nearby the cave site.

Altamira cave is in Spain, and very well known.

Formed in the twisting calcareous rock passages of Mount Vispieres. Around 13,000 years ago a rockfall sealed the Altamiras entrance. Its contents were preserved until its eventual discovery, which occurred after a nearby tree fell and disturbed the fallen rocks.

It was 1868 was when Modeso Cubillas discovered the Altamira cave. The cave is approximately 1,000 m (3,300 ft) long. A few years after its discovery, feeling so inclined, Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, and the university of Madrid begin studying the cave. In 1880, with support of others, reports of the cave were published, to initial public acclaim. It began a debate began about the abstract thinking for the time, and if humans were able to draw this way 10s of thousands of years ago. It stopped around 1902, (and continued on), when more caves were found in this and the French region(s).

Did you know? Before 18,500; and, after 15,000 years ago there was evidence of human life. During the two millennia in-between, in was believed prehistoric megafauna inhibited the cave.

Cave life 10,000:
The ‘polychrome ceiling’ is the most impressive feature of the cave. Depicting a herd of extinct steppe bison (bison priscus) in different poses; two horses, a large doe, and possibly a wild boar. Human occupation was limited to the cave mouth, although paintings were created throughout the length of the cave. Charcoal, ochre and hematite were used to create the images. Diluting these pigments to produce variations in intensity and creating an impression of chiaroscuro. They also exploited the natural contours of the cave walls to give their subjects a three-dimensional effect.

Did you know? The drawings were very well preserved. And, it could have been the oils and gases used in lanterns. A number of years after Altamiras discovery, in early 1900, it was discovered early ancestors or those from the stone age could had used marrow fat.

Visitors and replicas:
During the 1970s, and 2000s, the paintings were being damaged by visitors carbon dioxide and vapor. Altamira was completely closed in the late 1970s; reopened for a bit, and again was closed in early 2000s.

Interested in seeing Altamiras reproductions?
The National Museum and Research Center of Altamira;
National Archaeological Museum of Spain;
Deutsches Museum Germany (1964); and,
Japan (1993).

Grotte Chauvet-point d’arc is Chauvet Cave located in SE France with cave drawings more than 30,000 years ago.

Its soft clay-like floor retains the paw prints of cave bears along with large, rounded depressions that are believed to be the “nests” where the Europen cave bears slept. In Grotte Chauvet-point d’arc, fossilized bones are abundant, and include the skulls of cave bears, and the horned skull of an ibex.

Located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-d’Arc. On a limestone cliff, above the former bed of the river Ardèche, in the Gorges de l’Ardèche, is Chauvet cave. It is situated above the previous course of the Ardèche river before the Pont d’Arc opened up. The gorges of the Ardèche region and the site are numerous. There are many caves, much of them having some geological or archaeological importance.

This cave is amongst the best preserved caves in the world. Chauvet cave remained untouched for possibly thousands of years before it was discovered in 1994. Evidence suggests that it was due to a landslide which covered its historical entrance. Left with the cave bear foot prints were little child’s footprints, the charred remains of ancient hearths, and carbon smoke stains from torches that lit the caves.

Like many European caves, dates have been a matter of dispute. A study published in 2012 supports placing the art approximately 32,000–30,000 years ago. A newer study published in 2016, using additional 88 radiocarbon dates ,showed two periods of habitation, one 37,000- 33,500; and, the other from 31,000 to 28,000 years ago. Most of the black drawings were from even earlier periods.

Artistic ‘shamanal’ components?
Some say a magical ‘venus’ figure composed of what appears to be a vulva attached to an incomplete pair of legs is seen in the cave. Above the Venus, and in contact with it, is a bisons head. Most had led to describe the composite drawing as a Minotaur (half bull), or Centaur (half horse), or ??.
The cave even has panels of red ochre hand stencils. From blowing the crushed up pigments of ochre over hands pressed against the caves surface. And, abstract markings—lines and dots—are found throughout the cave. There are also two unidentifiable images that have a vaguely butterfly or avian shape to them. This and/or the combination of subjects (including other caves in the area) lead many to believe that there was a ritual, shamanic, or magical aspect to these paintings, and lives of humans, tens of thousands of years ago.

Lots of drawings:
The artists who produced these paintings used techniques rarely found in other cave art. Many of the paintings appear to have been made only after the walls were scraped clear of debris and concretions, leaving a smoother and noticeably lighter area upon which the artists worked.
Popular paintings include what is suggested as being a dog, however these have been challenged as being a wolf.
Hundreds of animal paintings have been catalogued, depicting at least 13 different species.
Rather than depicting only the familiar herbivores that predominate in Paleolithic cave art, i.e. horses, aurochs, mammoths, etc., the walls of the Chauvet Cave feature many predatory animals, e.g., cave lions, leopards, bears, and cave hyenas. There is also paintings of whoolly rhinoceroses. Which had not been found in North America.
One drawing, later overlaid with a sketch of a deer, is reminiscent of a volcano spewing lava, similar to the regional volcanoes that were active at the time. If confirmed, this would represent the earliest known drawing of a volcanic eruption.

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Плейстоценовый парк, or Pleistocene Park. In NE Siberia an attempt to re-create subarctic steppe grasses to help reduce greenhouse gases, climate change & a better more significant world is taking place.

Family members Sergey Zimov, and Nikita Zimov are testing a big hypothesis. Repopulating with large herbivores (and predators) can restore rich grasslands ecosystems. And, that if overhunting, and not climate change was primarily responsible for the pleistocene epoch, quanternary, or big event 11,700 years ago.

Another main aim, is to research the changes expected by the climatic effects of restoring the 10,000 year old plus ecosystem. The hypothesis is that change from tundra to grassland will result in a raised ratio of energy emission to energy absorption of the area, leading to less thawing of permafrost, and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases. It is also thought that stomping and the removal of snow by large herbivores will reduce permafrost insulation sucking in the pollution, even in cold winter.

Melted permafrost is changing the planet:
Greenhouse gasses are warming the planet. Some areas, like Siberia (Russia has 11 of the 18 million square km of permafrost), it is observed more than others. But believe it or not. When there is a lot of snow, the ground and the permafrost do not get much colder in winter. Its why its called permafrost. When these soils thaw though, old microorganisms wake up and attack. What they have not had time to consume. Releasing carbon dioxide when the soil is dry, and methane when it is saturated with water. Due to climate change, it doesn’t help because this area, it is experiencing more rain.
From the melting of the permafrost, if it was only co2 released, rather than both co2 and methane. The emissions is equivalent to that of human beings. For the greenhouse effect (and thus melting of the permafrost) methane gas can be 4 times worse than carbon dioxide. Resulting in even greater global warming. It is a big paradox. Many people do not understand this. The methane released from permafrost is more dangerous than carbon dioxide and both are bad.
In the grassland ecosystem, everything that grew during the summer must be consumed in the winter. Large herbivores need to eat. The only way to access the grass during the cold season is to dig through the cold snow. The parks animals dig in the snow all winter long. This contributes greatly to the cooling of the soil. And, absorption and release of the greenhouse gases.
It was observed that many greenhouse gases decreased during the first year and a half of covid19. While things were shut down. Instead of decreasing the methane gases increased. Due the permafrost melting. Regularly observed were appearances of new small springs where methane gases were bubbling up, in areas that used to be snow and permafrost. Other than the permafrost melting, and being replaced by trees shurbs and mosses. Not grasses, which prehistoric herbivores eat up, and stomp down. Many cannot see any other explanation for preventing this high concentration. The theory purposes that restoring the wildlife and ecosystem will absorb more greenhouse gases and help restore our natural environment. Sergey has been quoting telling the UN: “I created Pleistocene Park to observe how quickly animals could transform the moss tundra into productive grassland… why had the natural environment, which had known so many grasslands, horses, bison, mammoths, become so poor?” Permafrost has long been treated like an unwanted child in the scientific family. Reports are that by 2100 we will have lost another 10-20 percent. It is a big controversial topic.

Goals:
Researching the effects of large herbivores on the arctic tundra/grasslands ecosystem, and preserving the environment; and,
To research the climatic effects of the expected changes in the ecosystem. Here the key concept is that some of the effects of the large herbivores, such as eradicating trees and shrubs or trampling snow, will result in a stronger cooling of the ground in the winter, leading to less thawing of permafrost during summer and thereby less emission of greenhouse gases.

Sergei Zimov points out contradiction to this scenario:
Similar climatic shifts occurred in previous interglacial periods without causing such massive environmental changes as we are seeing today;
Those large herbivores of the former steppe that survived until today (e.g. musk oxen, bison, horses) thrive in humid environments just as well as in arid ones; and,
The climate (both temperatures and humidity) in today’s northern Siberia is in fact most similar to that of the mammoth steppe.

Did you know? Permafrost is a large global carbon reservoir that has remained frozen throughout much of the Holocene. It is ground that continuously remains below 0 °C (32 °F) for two or more years. It is not necessarily under the snow too. Sometimes it is found hundreds of meteres deep. Due to the recent climate changes, the permafrost is increasingly thawing, releasing stored carbon and forming thermokarst lakes. When the thawed permafrost enters the thermokarst lakes, its carbon is converted into carbon dioxide and methane and released into the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas and the methane emissions from thermokarst lakes have the potential to initiate a positive feedback cycle. In which increased atmospheric methane concentrations lead to amplified global climate change. Which keeps the ball rolling to more permafrost thaw, more methane and more carbon dioxide emissions. Included in the higher temperatures, rain and climate change you see in almost all places today.

Implementation & background: regional pleistocene ecoregions. Regenerate the pleistocene terrain with its different ecological habitats such as taiga, tundra, steppe and alpine terrain:
Mainly recreate the extensive grasslands that covered the Beringia region in the late pleistocene. Mammoth steppe with large and medium herbivores. Species woolly mammoth, woolly rhino, steppe wisent, lena Horse, muskox, and reindeer. Saiga antelope, some massive herds. On the edges, barrier shrub-like terrain, and dry conifer forests (similar to taiga): woolly rhinoceros, moose, wapiti, yukon wild ass, and camels. Beyond this, mountains, more mountain-going animals like: snow sheep. Variety of carnivorous mammals. Like on the plains: beringian cave lion, apex predators, shared grey wolf, cave hyena, homotherium, brown bear, wolverine, and arctic fox. In shrubs and forests there were also brown bears, wolverines, cave bears, lynxes, tigers, leopards, and red foxes.

Did you know? Siberian tiger and Amur leopard occupied the southern present Russian-Sino border in the Amur and Primorye regions. And, both have been purposed for the park.

Proposed procedure:
Few of the former species of megafauna are left; and their population density is extremely low, too low to affect the environment. Desired results density raised artificially by fencing in and concentrating existing large herbivores. A large variety of species is important as each species concerns. For example are the effects on the flora (are the mosses being replaced by grasses, etc.), the effects on the atmosphere (changes in levels of methane, carbon dioxide, water vapor) and the effects on the permafrost.
Once a high density of herbivores over a vast area has been reached, predators larger than the wolves will have to be introduced to keep the megafauna in check.

Did you know? It is believed anywhere permafrost currently exsists, or even areas burned from forest fire, the mammoth steppe can be re-created. Reducing greenhouse gases. The rate of decomposition of organic matter in the soil where there were fires depends mainly on temperature. Introducing grasses and mammoth steepe slows the process down. The only way to force the soil to retain carbon is to cool it down. For a long time, scientists have known, that dark forests absorb the sun’s rays, while the lighter, snow-covered grasslands reflect them in winter. Having a combination can have positive effects on the permafrost and environment.

White spruce

Pleistocene progress:
-1988–1996: The first grazing experiments began in 1988 at the northeast science station in Chersky with yakutian horses.
-1996–2004: In 1996 a 50 ha (125 acre) enclosure was built in Pleistocene Park. As a first step in recreating the ancient landscape, the yakutian horses were introduced, as horses most abundant ungulates. Moose, already present in the region, introduced. The effects of larger animals (mammoths and buffalo) created by using a tank and 8×8 Argo to crush pathways through the willowshrub.

Willowshrub


Experiment working:
The vegetation in the park started to change. In the areas where the horses grazed, the soil compacted. Mosses, weeds and willow shrub were replaced by grass. Flat grassland is now the dominating landscape inside the park. When air temperature sank to −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter, the temperature of the ground was found to be only –5 °C (+23 °F) under an intact cover of snow, but −30 °C (−22 °F) where the animals had trampled down the snow. The grazers thus help keep permafrost intact, thereby lessening the amount of methane released by the tundra.
-2004–2011: A new fence was erected. After complete, reindeer and more moose were brought into the park.
A 32 meter (105 foot) high tower was erected in the park, in 2007, that constantly monitors the levels of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the park’s atmosphere.
Muskox from Wrangel island were reintroduced in 2010
In 2011, Altai wapiti were introduced
-2011–2016: Construction of a new branch begun on the “Wild field section”, and greater energy monitoring stations were put in.
-2017–present: yak, and sheep were brought to the park. More plans for future.

Reception & Controversial aspects:
Critics admonish that introducing alien species could damage the fragile ecosystem of the existing tundra. Scientist Sergey Zimov replies: “Tundra – that is not an ecosystem. Such systems had not existed on the planet [before the disappearance of the megafauna], and there is nothing to cherish in the tundra. Of course, it would be silly to create a desert instead of the tundra, but if the same site would evolve into a steppe, then it certainly would improve the environment. If deer, foxes, bovines were more abundant, nature would only benefit from this. And people too. However, the danger still exists, of course, you have to be very careful. If it is a revival of the steppes, then, for example, small animals are really dangerous to release without control. As for large herbivores – no danger, as they are very easy to remove again.”
Another concern point is a majority of species cant be introduced in harsh conditions. For example, according to some critics, the yakutian horses, would not survive without food supply and human intervention. Mostly in the fall when water freezes and before the snow hits (the horses eat the snow for water, but cant lick the ice as easily).

Positive reception:
Project drawdown claims the park as: “100 most substantive solutions to global warming”. Total costs and lifetime savings were monitored in the study.
In January 2020, a study from the University of Oxford assessed the viability of the park’s goals. It was estimated, if three large-scale experimental were set up, each containing 1000 animals. Over a ten year period, that 72,000 metric tons of carbon could be held and generate 360,000 US dollars in carbon revenues.

Visitors:
The park is a select hub for a small number of journalists; and, international scientists, and students, who come from around the world to conduct their own ecological research and experiments.

Size and administration:
Pleistocene Park is a 160 km square scientific nature reserve (Zakaznik) consisting of willow brush, grasslands, swamps, forests and a multitude of lakes.
The average temperature in January is about –33 °C; and, in July +12 °C; annual precipitation is 200–250 mm.
The reserve is surrounded by a 600 km 2 buffer zone.

Animals:
Herbivores: Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus);
Elk;
Moose (Alces alces);
Yakutian horses;
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus); and
European bison, Bison bonasus).

Muskoxen family: Domestic yak (Bos mutus grunniens);
Edilbaevskaya sheep (a domestic breed of sheep);
Kalmykian cattle (a domestic breed of cattle adapted for the Mongolian steppe);
Plains bison (Bison bison bison);
Orenburg fur goat (Capra aegagrus hircus); and,
Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus).

Carnivores: Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx);
Tundra wolf (Canis lupus albus);
Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus);
Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos);
Wolverine (Gulo gulo);
Red fox (Vulpes vulpes);
Sable (Martes zibellina); and,
Stoat (Mustela erminea).

Herbivores considered for reintroduction:
Wood bison (Bison bison athabascae);
Bison priscus;
Altai wapiti or Altai maral (Cervus canadensis sibiricus);
Wild yak (Bos mutus);
Snow sheep (Ovis nivicola);
Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus);
Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus);
Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica); and,
Altai maral.

Carnivores:
Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

Did you know? Harvard universities geneticist George Church, and others are working on a plan to genetically resurrect woolly mammoths.

Animals that could be placed in the park if revived from extinction:
Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius);
Cave lion (Panthera spelaea);
Steppe bison (Bison priscus);
Woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis);
Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus); and,
Cave bear (Ursus spelaeus).

Slip into your own pleistocene freedom. Wander free and create your own natural time of life. Your kind will grow stronger and stronger, as the millennia go on and on and on. Earth may overflow with life one day again. Maybe one day, all of our mistakes may even be taken back. And if it does. And, if we save the planet and be ourselves, that will be the sh*t.

Cave of the Trois-Frères is a cave in southwestern France famous for its cave paintings from 13,000 years ago.

Recreation of some of the drawings. At a french museaum

It is located in Montesquieu-Avantès, in the Ariège département. Near the Spanish border. The cave is named for three brothers (French: trois frères), Max, Jacques, and Louis Begouën, who, along with their father Comte Henri Begouën, discovered it and the signigifance in 1914.

Big info:
One of the paintings, known as “The Sorcerer”, is the “most famous and enigmatic human figure” with the features of several different animals. Though given there age, each and exact characteristics remain a matter of debate. Conesyahoo had stated ‘it was an irish elk with a magicians head spitting something’.


Engravings were found in the cave and nearby included what is though to be the earliest representation of an insect. Also appeared were what appear to be several birds, and a cave cricket found on a fragments of a bison bone.
On the other walls are whats believed to be: lions, owls, and bison. A horse overlaid with club-like symbols, and an apparent speared brown bear vomiting blood.
Aside from the “Sorcerer”, other human-like figures can be seen at Trois-Frères, such as the man-bison, and a character known as the “small sorcerer” who appears to be playing a nose-flute.

Location:
The Trois-Freres cave is part of a single cave-complex formed by the Volp River. The complex is divided into three caves; the central Trois-Freres, Enlène to the east, and the Tuc d’Audoubert to the west. The river flows through some of the lower sections. With different galleries sectioned on each level and room.

Did you know: One area, the ‘salle des bisons’ contains two masterfully modeled bison, which were sculpted in clay with a stone spatula-like tool and the artist’s fingers. It is believed the pair are among the largest and finest surviving prehistoric sculptures.