In 1867, in a field in Denmark, a little boy discovered something magical. Hindsgavl Dagger is Hindsgavldolken

It was immediately brought to the property managers attention. He offered the boy the equivelant of 90 dollars, and he couldn’t refuse. The manager then gifted it to the owner of the estate.  Basse Fonss of Hinsgavl Manor.

Hingsgavl manor was apart of the Hindsgavl. It’s the pieces of land that connect Frederica and Middlefart (centre of Denmark).

As the Exposition Universelle at Paris approached in 1889. Danish collectors realized they needed something big. The museum never lent out objects but always sent copies.  Since Hindsgavldolken was private owned, Basse Fonss was approached. He agreed to lend it out. 


After the Exposition universelle, the museum and collectors were so impressed with its attraction and features. They made Basse an offer he couldn’t refuse.   

About:
Production of stone daggers continued into the bronze age. Especially in the north. It’s believed this dagger was produced around 4000 years ago. It is almost 30cm long, and the blade thickness is less than 1cm. It shines a beautiful black and brown.

Did you know? The 100 krone danish bank note (about 15.5$ usd) features Hindsgavldolken, or Hindsgavl Dagger.

In local Inuktitut language, the arctic ground squirrel is known from the thril it emits when being threatened “t’sik-t’sik”

Found in the Arctic and Subarctic of North America and Asia. Arctic ground squirrel is mostly identified as Urocitellus parryii; or, in Inuktitut: ᓯᒃᓯᒃ, siksik.   

People in Alaska, particularly around the Aleutians, refer to them as “par’kee” squirrels.    Most likely because they are easy to snare, shoot or trap. There pelt is also relatively easy to skin. Those little firs bridge together good, for the attractive collar on many jackets and clothing.

There are 10 Subspecies:
        U. p. ablusus Osgood, 1903
        U. p. kennicottii Ross, 1861   
        U. p. kodiacensis Ross, 1861
        U. p. leucostictus Brandt, 1844
        U. p. lyratus Hall and Gilmore, 1932
        U. p. nebulicola Osgood, 1903
        U. p. osgoodi Merriam, 1900
        U. p. parryii Richardson, 1825
        U. p. plesius Osgood, 1900
        U. p. stejnegeri J. A. Allen, 1903
(Source wikipedia jan 2023)

Description:
Arctic squirrels have a beige and tan coat with a white-spotted back. There face is a little shorter with small ears, a dark tail and white markings around its eyes.
From summer to winter there coats change to red and yellow colorations, along with the cheeks and sides of the animal. In the fall, these patches are replaced with silverish fur.

Size: The average adult length is around 39 cm (15 in). Adult females are close to 750 g (26 oz). Males are around 100 g (3.5 oz) heavier.  Because of the cold and sometimes sparse climate, is difficult to give a year round average mass.

Habitat:
‘Par’kee’ or the “t’sik-t’sik” thriling squirrels are native to the arctic tundra. Mountain slopes, river flats, banks, lakeshores and tundra ridges. They live in sandy soil due to easy digging and good drainage.  The shallow burrows are in areas where the permafrost does not prevent them from digging. Arctic squirrels can excavate near the permafrost. And, greenhouse gasses like methane and carbon dioxide can be emitted.

Prey: arctic fox, red fox, wolverine, lynx, bear, eagles even pine marten have been known to snack on arctic squirrel.

Diet:
They wake up in the spring hungry. Par’kee” squirrels feeds on grasses, sedges, mushrooms, bog rushes, bilberries, willows, roots, stalks, leaves, leaf buds, flowers, catkins, and seeds. They will also feed on insects, and are opportunists. Occasionally they will even feed on dead warm blooded creatures such as mice, snowshoe hares, caribou and other squirrels. In the late summer, the arctic ground squirrel begin to store food in its burrow so it has food when it wakes up in the spring.

Did you know? A squirrels ability to hiberate is being studied for better preservation of human organ transplant, and connection between brain, heart and muscle cells.

Hibernation:
Arctic squirrels heart rate drops significantly during hibernation compared to when there out in the spring and summer. “T’sik t’sik” (thril noise). Your noticed. Sometimes as much as 100-200 beats per minute.  There blood is special too.  When asleep arctic squirrel body temperature have been recorded as low as −3 °C (27 °F).   Somehow they emit ice nucleators which are necessary for the development of ice crystals. In the absence of them (ice nucleators), body fluids can remain liquid while in frigid state. ‘Par’kee’ or arctic squirrels, along with marmot and little brown bat are one of the few small arctic animals that can hibernate.   

The arctic squirrel have been recorded in the north tens of thousands of years.  It is not yet extinct. Let hear it for our loud little thriling friend.

Times of our lives 3?: 100$ pieces of plastic w/ copper, lithium and precious metals. Maybe we don’t know what fun is anymore

There was a time when we valued $100 pieces of plastic w/ copper and precious metals. Combined with disease, and vaccines, so corporations could amount mass data. A microchipped robotic digital future.

Yet we don’t know much past 5 or 6 thousand years. 30,000 years and beyond. Almost nothing. Who and what were these people? And, what constitutes a lively, or true “time of life” events?

No wonder everyone wanted a woolly mammoth

From 40,000 years ago, as vindicated in numerous caves, the woolly mammoths were one of the most popular subjects of neolithic artists. Its tusks were 15 feet long, and some were as large as 7 tonnes. On top of this, their long, shaggy coats, and famous tusks. Woolly mammoths were able to ward off hungry saber-tooth tigers, human hunters, predators and last tens of thousands of years.
Despite a kill ensuring homo sapiens, and there families survival. Mammoths were capable reproducers, and hunters earning the international acclimation and research we give them today. For humans, hunting one meant years they could eat, make a warm house, create fur pelts and so on. As massive as they were, numerous feet, and many tons—woolly mammoths figured on the lunch menu of early homo sapiens. When humans did have enough courage to hunt one, we converted there bodies for their warm pelts, as well as their tasty, fatty meat and bones for tools and shelter.

Hunting one:
After a lucky neolithic hunting session, some human groups in central and eastern Europe used the conveniently big bones to build themselves huts. The Mezinian culture, found in present-day Ukraine, used mammoth bones arranged geometrically to build the outer walls of their dwellings. In the nearby Danube corridor, there are mammoth bone accumulations that were probably started by giant hunting, fishing and game parties. The key point has been made in developing civilizations; that having the patience, planning, skills, and cooperation to down a woolly mammoth was paramount.

Cave drawings and different types:

From 30,000 to 10,000 years ago, and before the great event, woolly mammoths were one of the most popular subjects of neolithic artists. But what we call the woolly mammoth was actually a species of genus Mammuthus. Mammuthus primigenius to be exact. It was not the only woolly prehistoric mammal as well, the woolly rhino, aka Coelodonta, also roamed the plains of Pleistocene Eurasia, Because of its one-ton size many found it easier to handle. A dozen other larger mammoth species existed in North America and Eurasia during the Pleistocene, some as big as 10-15 tonnes.

Biology: skin and fur

Woolly mammoths did share some solid characteristics with other warmed blooded hairy Pleistocene critters. They had four inches of solid fat underneath their skin, an added layer of insulation that helped to keep them toasty in the severest climatic conditions. Based on what scientists have learned from well-preserved individuals, woolly mammoth fur ranged in color from blond to dark brown, much like human hair.

Habitat, prey and predators:
The woolly mammothʼs habitat, is sometime called mammoth steppe. However between 42,000 and 6,000 years ago, a staggering 90% of areas suitable to mammoths disappeared. It consisted of the arid steppe-tundras. At one time spanning from north Canada, across Alaska and Siberia, to the west of Europe, and as far south as Spain. Mammoths were specialized foragers who stuck to their own ecological niche eating plants killed off by the winter frost, which they uncovered from beneath the snow and ice by using their tusks or by trampling. Sharing the broader prehistoric landscape with these mammoths were other herbivores such as bison, aurochs, and the deer family. Some of the local predators that were around at the time were prehistoric wolves, as well as hulking cave bears and cave lions, alongside their non-cave counterparts.

Extinction and Siberias Wrangel Island
Not built to handle changing earth conditions. Pretty much all the worldʼs mammoths were gone by the end of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago. The exception was a small population of woolly mammoths that lived on Wrangel Island, off the coast of Siberia, until 1700 BCE. Since they subsisted on limited resources, Wrangel Island mammoths were much smaller than their woolly relatives and are often referred to as dwarf elephants.

Who would have thought something so popular, for thousands of millennia, became estranged so long.

Neolithic Architecture, 300 million years of Beetles

This species, nearly 300 million years old, is estimated hundreds of millions years older, than humans. The Coleoptera (beetles), with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms, and growing. Even the curculionidae (weevils), with some 83,000 member species, belong to this order.
Found commonly in every region except sea, and polar. Check out Neolithic Architectures prehistoric chart of beetles. Wow that’s some old, useful information.

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8 general characteristics of the neolithic revolution:

  1. Possible beginnings: The influx of the Tigris and Euphrates allowed ranching and agriculture. According to Gordon Childe, the “Fertile Crescent”, is evidence of one, or one of the main starting point of agriculture and ranching. It covers the Egyptian area from the Nile Valley (Africa) to Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Asia) between the periods of 10,000 and 8,000 bc.
  2. Agriculture:    The cultivation of cereals gained relevance, especially rye, wheat and barley. It is believed, however, that they were not the first species to be cultivated. Legumes date to more ancient cultivations and also some fruit trees from Asia. The use of ferments and yeasts, responsible for making bread and dairy products and, consequently, alcoholic beverages also became popular.

  1. Ranching: The first animal to enter the human habitat was the dog. The pig occupied a leading place in livestock. And the neolithic domestication of sheep, cattle and goats constituted a fundamental pillar in the production of what you see today. In Central Asia, even the domestication of horses occurred. Poultry and birds were domesticated, and there is information on insects, for example, as beekeeping, sericulture, and fishing bait.
  2. Invention of textiles: While being pre-supported by knowledge of animal cultivation, archeologists discovered many garments made from linen and wool. It is in this period when looms were created, and the first tools were used to weave and sew.

  1. Flint knapping and tool making:    This is the name given to the reduction of lithic elements (stone work). Which allowed greater strength and standardized production methods to create more tools. For example, arrowheads, spears, knives, fishing hooks, axes, cutting and grinding stones, etc
  2. Creation of ceramics: During the Neolithic revolution, pottery became widely used.

  1. A special relationship with the land began: The cycle of life and death, fertility; including animistics, religion, and writing started and was developed during the neolithic age.
  2. Emergence of private property: The work of farmers requires a lot of effort and time. It makes sense the premises during these times, began private properties protection.

Prehistory covers the time from the middle paleolithic (old stone age) to the beginnings of ancient history.

Homo sapiens in Africa 315,000 years ago to the invention of writing, over 4,000 years ago.

-320,000 to 305,000 years ago: Olorgesailie, in Southern Kenya modern advancements to lithic tools made.

-315,000 years ago: appearance of homo sapiens in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco.

-250,000 years ago: appearance of saccopastore skulls and homo neanderthalensis.

-210,000 years ago: modern human presence in Apidima, Greece

-200,000 years ago: oldest known grass bedding.

-170,000 years ago: humans wearing clothing.

-164,000 years ago: humans found to be eating seafood.

-120,000 years ago: possible earliest evidence of of symbols carved onto bone.

-120,000 years ago: use of marine shells for personal decoration by humans.

-120,000–90,000 years ago: North Africa and the Sahara desert region is wet and fertile.

-100,000 years ago: earliest structures in the world in Egyptian near the Sudan border (sandstone blocks set in a semi-circle with an oval foundation).

-75,000 years ago: Toba Volcano super eruption.

-70,000 years ago: earliest example of abstract art or symbolic art from Blombos Cave, South Africa.

-50,000 years ago: earliest sewing needle found. Made and used by Denisovans.

-50,000–30,000 years ago: Mousterian Pluvial in North Africa. The Sahara desert region is wet and fertile. Later Stone Age begins in Africa.

-45,000–43,000 years ago: early European modern humans.

-45,000–40,000 years ago: Châtelperronian cultures in France.

-42,000 years ago: Laschamps event, a geomagnetic excursion with major implications for humans at the time.

-42,000 years ago: paleolithic flutes in Germany.

-42,000 years ago: earliest evidence of advanced deep sea fishing technology at the Jerimalai cave site in East Timor.

-41,000 years ago: Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains.

-40,000 years ago: Aurignacian culture begins in Europe.

-40,000 years ago: oldest known figurative art the zoomorphic Löwenmensch figurine.

-40,000–30,000 years ago: aboriginal Australians form first human settlements in several areas which today are cities of Sydney, Perth and Melbourne.

-35,000 years ago: oldest known figurative art of a human figure as opposed to a zoomorphic figure (Venus of Hohle Fels).

-31,000–16,000 years ago: last glacial maximum (peak at 26,500 years ago).

-30,000 years ago: rock paintings tradition begins in Bhimbetka rock shelters in India, which presently as a collection, the densest known concentration of rock art. In an area about 10 km square, there are about 800 rock shelters and 500 with paintings.

-29,000 years ago: the earliest ovens found.

-28,500 years ago: New Guinea is populated by colonists from Asia or Australia.

-28,000 years ago: oldest known twisted rope.

-Lion-man sculpture

-28,000–24,000 years ago: oldest known pottery used to make figurines.

-28,000–20,000 years ago: Gravettian period in Europe. Harpoons and saws invented.

-26,000 years ago: to make baby carriers, clothes, bags, baskets, and nets people around the world use fibers.

-25,000 years ago: a hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolní Věstonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic.

-24,000 years ago: The cave bear is thought to have become extinct.

-24,000 years ago: Evidence suggests humans are living in Alaska and Yukon areas of North America.

-23,000-21,000 years ago: the earliest known human footprints in North America are left at what is now White Sands National Park, New Mexico. It is also the earliest known evidence of the Oasisamerica civilizations, which eventually became the cultures in modern northern Mexico and sw United States.

-21,000 years ago: artifacts suggest early human activity occurred in the capital city of Austrailia Canberra.

-20,000 years ago: beginning of the Epipalaeolithic and Kebaran in the Levant

-20,000 years ago: theorized earliest date of development of traditional inuit skin clothing

-20,000–10,000 years ago: Khoisanid expansion to Central Africa.

-20,000–19,000 years ago: earliest pottery use, in Xianren Cave, China.

-18,000–12,000 years ago: though estimations vary widely, it is believed by scholars that Afro-Asiatic was spoken.

-16,000–14,000 years ago: Minatogawa Man in Okinawa, Japan

-16,000–11,000 years ago: caucasus hunter-gatherer expansion to Europe.

-16,000 years ago: near Spain, european bison sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d’Audoubert in the French Pyrenees.

-15,000–14,700 years ago: earliest supposed date for the domestication of the pig.

-14,800 years ago: the humid period begins in North Africa. The region that would later become the Sahara is wet and fertile, and the aquifers are full.

-14,200 years ago: the oldest agreed domestic dog remains belongs to the Bonn-Oberkassel dog that was buried with two humans.

-14,000–12,000 years ago: oldest evidence for prehistoric warfare (Jebel Sahaba, and Natufian culture).

13,000–10,000 years ago: last glacial maximum, end of the last glacial period. Climate warms, glaciers recede.

-13,000 years ago: major water outbreak occurs on Lake Agassiz, which at the time could have been the size of the black sea and the largest lake on Earth. Much of lake is drained in the arctic ocean through the mackenzie river.

-13,000–11,000 years ago: earliest dates suggested for the domestication of the sheep.

-12,900–11,700 years ago: the younger dryas, a period of sudden cooling and return to glacial conditions.

-12,000 years ago: volcanic eruptions in the Virunga Mountains blocked Lake Kivu outflow into lake Edward and the Nile system, diverting the water to lake tanganyika. Nile’s total length is shortened and lake tanganyika’s surface is increased.

-12,000 years ago: earliest dates suggested for the domestication of the goat.

Holocene:

The terms “neolithic, copper and bronze age” are cultures of the old world. Many populations of new world began a mesolithic cultural stage.

-11,600 years ago: an abrupt period of global warming accelerates the glacial retreat; taken as the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch.

-11,600 years ago: Jericho has evidence of settlement dating back to 9,600 BC. Jericho was a popular camping ground for Natufian hunter-gatherer groups, who left a scattering of crescent microlith tools behind them.

-11,200–11,000 years ago: rise of sea level 25 ft within about 160 years.

-11,000 years ago: earliest date recorded for construction of temenoi ceremonial structures at Göbekli Tepe in southern Turkey, as possibly the oldest surviving proto-religious site on Earth.

-11,000 years ago: Giant short-faced bears and giant ground sloths go extinct. Equidae goes extinct in North America.

-11,000-8,000 years ago: the ancestral Puebloans, in modern day New Mexico and the southwestern United States, began their archaic early basketmaker era. Leading art styles in pottery and basketmaking.

-as well, early structures in Pueblo architecture style, including as seen at Chaco Culture National Historical Park in the north west.

-10,500 years ago : earliest supposed date for the domestication of cattle.

-10,000 years ago: the quaternary extinction event, which has been ongoing since the mid-Pleistocene, concludes. Many cave painting of a conflict between man, other men, and food/shelter/clothing mega fauna go extinct, including the megatherium, woolly rhinoceros, irish elk, cave bear, cave lion, and the sabre-toothed cats. Minus one island in Siberia, the mammoth goes extinct.

-10,000–8,000 years ago: the post-glacial sea level rise decelerates, slowing the submersion of landmasses that had taken place over the previous 10,000 years.

-10,000–9,000 years ago: in northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins. At first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, and eventually for bread.

-evidence of a large stone tower, almost 30 feet in diameter and 30 feet high is built. In Jericho

-9,500–5,500 years ago: Saharra desert region subplivials . Lake Chad is larger than the current Caspian Sea. An African culture develops across the current Sahel region.

-9,500 years ago: urban settlement founded in Anatolia. Earliest supposed date for the domestication of the cat in Çatalhöyük

-9,200 years ago: Ain Ghazal, the first giant human settlement in Amman, Jordan; spanning over 37 acres.

– 9,000 years ago: Jiahu culture began in China.

-9,000 years ago: large first fish fermentation in southern Sweden.

-9,000 years ago: earliest site with evidence of farming and herding in South Asia. Perhaps oldest evidence of dental work. Mehrgarh.

-8,200–8,000 years ago: The 8.2-kilo year event: a sudden decrease of global temperatures, probably caused by the final collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, and others, which leads to drier conditions in East Africa and Mesopotamia.

-8,200–7,600 years ago: believed sudden rise in sea level 21 feet in less than 140 years;

-8,000–5,000 years ago: development of writing proto-writing in China, southeast Europe (Vinca symbols) and west Asia (proto-literate cuneiform).

-8,000 years ago: evidence of habitation at the current site of Aleppo dates to about c. 8,000 years ago, although excavations at Tell Qaramel, 25 kilometres (16 mi) north of the city show the area was inhabited about 13,000 years ago,

-8500 years ago: dating at Tell Ramad, on the outskirts of Damascus, suggests that the site possibly developed around 6300 BC. However, evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin is believed to go back to 9000 BC.

-7,500 years ago: copper smelting in evidence in Pločnik, which later become Serbia.

-7,700-6,500 years ago: Vinča culture

-7,200–6,000 years ago: Għar Dalam phase on Malta. First farming settlements on the island.

-6300 or 6350 years ago: Akahoya eruption creates the Kikai Caldera and ends the earliest homogeneous Jomon culture in Japan. When the Jomon culture recovers, it shows regional differences.

-6,100–5,800 years ago: Żebbuġ phase. Malta.

-6,070–6,000 years ago: Trypillian build in Nebelivka (Ukraine) settlement which reached 15,000–-18,000 inhabitants.

-6,500 years ago: the oldest known gold hoard deposited at Varna Necropolis, Bulgaria.

-6,000 years ago: civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent region (now Iraq). Earliest supposed dates for the domestication of the horse and for the domestication of the chicken, invention of the potter’s wheel.

-5,840–5,800 years ago: the Post Track and Sweet Track causeways are constructed in the Somerset Levels.

-5,800 years ago: Trypillian build in Talianki (Ukraine) settlement which reached 15,600–21,000 inhabitants.

-5,800–5,600 years ago: Mġarr phase. A short transitional period in Malta’s prehistory. It is characterized by pottery consisting of mainly curved lines.

-5,700 years ago: mass graves at Tell Brak in Syria.

-5,700 years ago: Trypillian build in Maidanets (Ukraine) settlement which reached 12,000–46,000 inhabitants, and built three-story buildings.

-5,700 years ago: Minoan culture begins on Crete.

-5,600–5,200 years ago: Ġgantija phase on Malta. Characterized by a change in the way the prehistoric inhabitants of Malta lived.

-5,500 years ago: Uruk period in Sumer. First evidence of mummification in Egypt.

-5,500 years ago: oldest known depiction of a wheeled vehicle (Bronocice pot, Funnelbeaker culture)

-5,500 years ago: earliest conjectured date for the still-undeciphered Indus script.

-5,500 years ago: end of the African humid period possibly linked to the piora oscillation: a rapid and intense aridification event, which probably started the current Sahara desert dry phase and a population increase in the Nile Valley. It is believed this event contributed to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia.

-5,400 years ago: Waun Mawn is built in West Wales

-5,300 years ago: bronze Age begins in the Near East. Newgrange is built in Ireland. Ness of Brodgar is built in Orkney. Hakra Phase of the Indus Valley. Civilization begins in the Indian subcontinent.

-5,300–5,000 years ago: Saflieni phase in Maltese prehistory.

-5,200 years ago: the bronze age begins on Crete signaling the beginning of the early minoan period.

-5,000 years ago: settlement of Skara Brae built in Orkney.

-4,600 years ago: writing is developed in Sumer and Egypt, triggering the beginning of recorded history.

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Neolithic Architecture: Was earth really flat? Aristarchus of Samos

Aristarchus (c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician, who presented the first heliocentric model, placing the Sun at the center of the universe, with Earth revolving around it. After realizing the sun was much larger than the earth and the other planets, Aristarchus concluded that planets revolved around the sun. But this ingenious insight, it turned out, “was too much for the philosophers of the time to swallow, and astronomy had to wait 2000 years more to find the right path.” Aristarchus identified the “central fire” with the Sun, and put other planets in their correct order of distance around the Sun. However his astronomical ideas were rejected in favor of the geocentric theory of Aristotle. Almost 2000 years later, Nicolaus Copernicus attributed the heliocentric theory (planets rotating sun) to Aristarchus. What did you think? Did most of time really consist of humans thinking the earth was flat?

Neolithic Architecture

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Earth Timeline: Geological History, and Events

Earth timeline

A little over 4 and a half billion years ago, Earth was molten lava. You would have had no idea it was the same place. In its earliest stage of formation, it was clumped from a cloud of dust, totally uninhabitable. Around 1,000,000,000 years ago, though, Earth had its first signs of life. Single-celled organisms used the sun’s energy. And, as a waste product, these bacteria slowly filled the oceans and atmosphere with oxygen.

An oxygenated atmosphere made way for more complex life.

100,000,000 years ago, dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
10,000,000 years ago it was mammals.
100,000 years ago was when homo sapiens truly evolved.
In this timeline, Neolithic architecture lays out all the pieces on the floor. What sequence of events has unfolded for Earth to support life to our current times?

1) Beginning of Earth: 94.6-4.0 billion years ago
The Big Bang created all matter. It is believed to include the sun, planets, our solar system and beyond. At the center, the sun swept in lesser elements like hydrogen and helium. Farther away, heavier elements formed planets. Based on the core accretion model, gravity was a core driver coalescing Earth from a cloud of dust.
In this early stage of Earth’s creation, the heaviest material like iron sank. Lighter material remained on top to form a crust. Because a solid inner layer heats the outer liquid layer, it produces convection. This form of geodynamics created Earth’s magnetic field. Without it, Earth would have been totally baked by harmful rays from the sun. During this stage. Earth was also hit by many asteroids, comets, and foreign objects badly. We know because we can see these on other planets. Many scientists believe that from these collisions, water originated, and could have also sparked the chemical building blocks for life or DNA.
The moon impact was one of the most important events for Earth. The giant impact hypothesis describes an object the size of Mars that hit earth at tremendous speed. After impact, gravity pulled the object into orbit. Ever since this event, and the hadean eon, it has remained in orbit.

Artist impression of archean eon and cyanobacteria

2) Primitive life earth temperature lowering 94.0-2.5 billion years ago
The collision of the moon into Earth impacted earths climate, oceans, and life. It slowed Earth’s rotation significantly, dragging us from 6-hour days to 24 hours. It also stabilized the Earth from wobbling. And, more importantly, it tilted Earth on its axis, and because of this, Earth now had seasons.
In the archean eon, the climate on Earth became more suited to different forms of life. Instead of a molten state, the Earth became cooler. Water vapors condensed to form oceans, and these conditions formed continents. Though scientists debate, “vaalbara” may have became Earth’s first super continent. During when oxygen was absent in the atmosphere, as new forms of life began, cyanobacteria was continuously converting sunlight into energy. They metabolized their own food as a waste product and released into the oceans.
In the oceans, where the oxygen mixed with iron, rust collected on the seafloor. This banded iron formation continued until there was no more iron in the oceans to rust. And, oxygen had nowhere to go but into the atmosphere. That’s why this event is known as the great oxygenation event.

Some of the oldest discovered bacteria on earth is close to 1 billion years old.
Some of the oldest discovered bacteria on earth is close to 1 billion years old.

3) The start of air 2.5 billion to 541 million years ago
Earths atmosphere was now oxygenated. New life begain to flourish on Earth. But cyanobacteria was not flourishing. Oxygen was toxic for themselves. It poisoned anaerobic life on Earth including there own. Imagine humans polluting the planet until extinction. The oxygen byproduct from cyanobacteria created an oxygen crisis on Earth. During this time, methane was more abundant in our atmosphere. One thing methane did was trap heat in the atmosphere. It’s one of the most efficient greenhouse gases, and when oxygen combined with methane, it produced carbon dioxide. All of a sudden, the greenhouse effect wasn’t doing its job. The side effect was the whole planet freezing. It was a giant igloo as we went into an ice age for the next 300,000,000 years.
Aerobic eukaryotes were another important consequence of an oxygen-filled atmosphere. Before the oxygenation, life was anaerobic. Aerobic respiration organisms emerged because of the enriched atmosphere and availability of oxygen. This increased the complexity of organisms and life. For example, multi-cellular organisms became appearing. But the abundance of CO 2 held many eukaryotes from diversifying.
Over the thousands of years, as oxygen eventually filled the atmosphere, Earth’s ozone layer thickened. Because water shielded harmful solar radiation, before the ozone layer, life was restricted to shallow water. Finally, the thicker ozone enabled life to diversify on land in what was known as our proterozoic eon.

Visual representation as the earth as a spiral

4) The Cambrian Explosion Paleozoic Area: 541- 245 million years ago
The cambrian explosion diversified everything and included the largest amount of life in history. This is when hard-shelled invertebrates, similar to what is found in diatomaceous earth, and larger begain originating in our oceans. The age of invertebrates originated after the precambian explosion. Diversity increased from there. There was a age of fish when thousands of fish species arose. And, the first vertebrate land animal made its leap ashore. Amphibians even rose to colonized the empty continent of Gondwana.
In the paleozoic era, rich vegetation’s flourished the land. Then, due to a giant change in climate, a major marine and terrestrial extinction event began. It was known as the carboniferous rainforest collapse. Lush plants and oceanic organisms were buried, compacted, and baked into coal deposits below the earth. It left behind large wastelands for reptiles to dominate the mainland.
The paleozoic era ended with the largest extinction in Earth’s history. The permian-triassic extinction vanquished 96% of all marine species. About 90% of terrestrial vertebrate species were wiped out. Opinions differ about the permian-triassic extinction. However most believe it was a major collision with earth and number of other factors and occurrences.

5) The Age of Reptiles and Dinosaurs: 245 to 66 million years ago
Rainforests collapsing triggering the age of reptiles When earth’s climate became hotter and drier. Reptiles do not lay eggs in water and are different from amphibians because they lay their hard-shelled eggs on land. Essentially they adapted to the land. Because of it, they gained a unique ecological advantage.
Due to the changing conditions, dinosaurs began to evolve. These reptile-like animals had scaly skin and hatched eggs like reptiles. Some dinosaurs adapted as plant eaters and some as meat. For the next 160 million years, dinosaurs were the dominant land vertebrates.
A sub age, the age of conifers in the mesozoic era provided the spread of seeded plants. Conifers store vast amounts of carbon. As a result, oxygen content jumped to 35% compared to 21% oxygen in the atmosphere today. In addition, they provided habitat, shelter, and a source of food for specific animals and species to survive.
Also notable is that, in this stage of earth, pangea existed as one super continent. It is believed dinosaurs lived on the one super continent but plate tectonics eventually mechanism that tore continents apart. 160 million years was a long time for dinosaurs to exist. Continental drift gradually drifted dinosaurs apart. We know this because there isn’t the same fossils on separate continents.

Spanish and French cave drawings originate to around 20,000 years BP
Some spanish and French cave drawings originate to around 18,000 years BP

6) The Age of Mammals and Homo Sapiens: 66 million years ago – now
Ultimately, something big happened again, and started the cenozoic era. It was the end of dinosaurs. Scientists believe a 6 or 7 mile wide asteroid hit Earth. There were a number of other factors (typhoons, axis shift), and a dust cloud blocked the sun. This caused temperatures to plummet and was believed to be the core damage from the cretaceous–paleogene extinction event. Because of the global climate disruption, it was responsible for the extinction of dinosaurs. Though, mammals did exist before the cenozoic era. They just kept a lower profile because dinosaurs were so giant. So, the extinction of the dinosaurs setup the age of mammals. When dinosaurs roamed the Earth, mammals remained small and furry. And because dinosaurs were gone, mammals emerged as the largest land animals at this time. Apes and monkeys remained in trees for their primary food source. Eventually, grass began to spread in places like the African savannah and there were fewer trees. This forced apes to walk to new food sources. Having to see predators, they evolved to walking with there heads above the grass to see predators. It also helped to have their hands available when they were traveling.
As the timeline to modern human evolution began, it was believed hominids were the early proto-humans. They were known for there adaptability, and sharpening objects with rocks for survival and protection. They began to master the use of their bodyparts, hands, and fingers. In the early stone age, humans had fire under control. It enabled them to cook food better, giving more nutrition and calories. It allowed them to make more complex sounds, share information and learning in groups.
According to all this information, humans have only existed for about 0.004% of the age of the Earth.

Geologic time is so vast and unimaginable yet it provides a basis for understanding neolithic architecture. Its hard to imagine planet earth spans over 4.5 billion years. One thing is for sure. Since its creation, oceans, continents, and life as we know it has incredibly changed. And, as necessary, we have evolved and adapted.

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Long nosed peccaries (mylohyus nasutus)

Biology:
Unlike modern pigs, long-nosed peccaries had upper incisors, or tusks, that grow downwards.
They had a long, slender muzzle and jaw and were about the size of a small white-tailed deer.

Diet:
Most paleontologists believe these animals were omnivorous, their diet dominated by plant matter, but occasionally supplemented by small animals (e.g., eggs, mice, worms).

Behavior:
Unlike the flat-headed peccary, the long-nosed peccary was probably a solitary animal. They were found in caves, because often they were devoured by scimitars or mountain lions. In general, they mostly occupied parkland or forested habitats.

Location:
Long-nosed peccaries were distributed throughout eastern north America. With concentrations in Appalacia and Florida. Most fossil areas are found in the south and south-east US. Though some are from west Texas in Fowlkes Cave, up north to Kimmswick and Crankshaft Cave in Missouri. And, Pennsylvanias Frankstown and Hollidaysburg Fissue caves, and, Prairie Creek in Indiana.