Located on a cliff of sandstone
The ancient and neolithic City of Byblos. Now known as Jbeil. It is a historic city in Lebanon. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world and has a rich history. It dates back over 7,000 years. Byblos is located along the Mediterranean coast, about 42 kilometers (26 miles) north of Beirut. The modern day capital of Lebanon.
Throughout its long history, Byblos has been a prominent center for trade, culture, and civilization. The city was an essential hub for the ancient Phoenician civilization and played a vital role in the spread of the Phoenician alphabet, which later became the basis for many writing systems, including the Greek and Latin alphabets. The name “Byblos” is believed to have even given rise to the word “Bible,” as the people were known for producing papyrus, a writing material.
8800BC or 10800 years ago. The site appears to be settled.
It was around the pre-pottery neolithic b period, people layed down there log, stone, agricultural and building materials. There are signs of numerous well built houses at the site.
Late writer Philo of Byblos is documented Byblos was founded by the Phoenician shrine god El. And others documented as there god Cronus.
Five levels of prehisotric stratigraphy used for comparison
1 Early neolithic phase: plastered floors and naviforme technology, dated between 8800 and 7000 BC;
2 Early neolithic late phase: Between 6400 and 5800 BC. Pottery, sickle blades, figurines and small points;
3 Middle Neolithic: 5800 and 5300 BC. Pottery
4 Late Neolithic: 5300 and 4500 BC. Pottery, stone vessels, silos, chamber tombs and seals; and
5 Chalcolithic: 4500 to 3100 BC. Jar burials, pierced flint, churn and a violin figurine. Architecture, cycliner seals and more.
It has been documented by Phoenician priests that the city was established by Cronus (god of the harvest).
In the Beqaa Vally, Labweh and Tlaili may have been earlier settlements than Byblos. They were on the other side of the valley, with more water. While Byblos was perdominatly located on the seaward slope. Before the Beqaa. Where a lot of the farming came and went.
The original site spread down into the valley. It was believed to be around 3.0 acres. A point between protected boat landing, and fertile soils.
Homes, or dwellings were mostly rectangular. They had plastered floors, and different kinds of roofs including straw wood and other materials. The pottery was usually burnished and dark faced. Some even had shell impressions.
As time went on, pottery became more developed. With red washes, more varied forms, the use of silica, and elaborate decorations. There became a greater range of flint tools too. Canaanean blades were found. A shape of flint much like a knife. For cutting or a weapon. Burials were found in jars. And, copper hooks were begin to be found as well. It was the beginning of a new age. Most agree Byblos moved from fishing village to urban form. During the neolithic age.
In addition to its historical significance, Byblos is now a popular tourist destination in Lebanon, attracting visitors with its well-preserved archaeological sites, ancient ruins, and charming coastal ambiance. The city remains an important cultural and historical site, contributing to Lebanon’s rich heritage. Lets hear it for Byblus, byblos, or now Jbeil. The important location for paper like material papyrus.
Garfinkel, Yosef (2004). ” “Néolithique” and “Énéolithique” Byblos in Southern Levantine Context”. In E. J. Peltenburg; Alexander Wasse (eds.). Neolithic Revolution: New Perspectives on Southwest Asia in Light of Recent Discoveries on Cyprus (https://books.google.com/books?i
d=6mKBAAAAMAAJ). Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-132-5. Retrieved 18 January 2012. ??
Vallois, H.V., Note sur les ossements humains de la nécropole énéolithique de Byblos (avec 2 planches). Bulletin du musée de Beyrouth. Tome I, 1937. Beyrouth.