Lithic Technolgies, Neolithic Arch

Conchoidal fracture in flint

Lithic technology are skills and techniques used to produce tools from various types of stone.
Ideal stone characteristics include: non-crystalline or glassy, which allows for the right cryptocrystalline structure and conchoidal fracturing.
Being conchoidal, and cryptocrystalline, is a characteristic sometimes easier to picture in your mind. Think, flint, chert , or jadeite used in projectile points and scrapers. It is the way materials fracture when they do not follow natural planes of separation. Cryptocrystalline is minute rock texture, that its crystalline, and revealed microscopically.

Near Syracuse, NY

Strong lithic technologies have smooth, curved surfaces, slightly concave, with concentric undulations. Similarly to lines on a shell (like on a high end spear head or scraper).
Given the correct features, a hard surface like granite; hammer stones, bones and sticks, the mason, (or flintknapper), is able to control his ‘lithic technology’ skills and ability.

Types of Lithic Stone included:
▪ Agate
▪ Basalt
▪ Chalcedony
▪ Chert
▪ Diorite
▪ Flint
▪ Greenstone
▪ Jadeite
▪ Jasper
▪ Obsidian
▪ Onyx
▪ Quartz
▪ Quartzite
▪ Sandstone
▪ Schist
▪ Silcrete, and
▪ Unknown

North, South America, and European ‘lithic technologies’ have been dated to around 10-15000 years.
Online sources claim 2-3 million year old tools have been found around Ethiopia.

Lithic tech text


That’s a lot of years before the computers technology.
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What is Neolithic; and Neolithic Architecture

It is believed ‘neolithic’, (based on Greek νέος néos ‘new’ and λίθος líthos ‘stone’, literally ‘New Stone Age’), started around 10,200 BC in the Middle East, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering the use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
Climatic changes, associated with the Younger Dryas (about 10,000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming and the ‘neolithic lifestyle.”

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Neolithic tar sands, in Los Angeles: La Brea

La Brea Tar Pits is an active paleontological research site in urban Los Angeles. Natural asphalt (asphaltum, bitumen, pitch, or tar) was found near Hancock Park. Dating from at least 3500 BC, the tar preserved the bones of trapped Neolithic animals.

Bitumen lines, from the crude oil, seep up along the 6th Street Fault from the Salt Lake Oil Field, which underlies much of the Fairfax District north of Hancock Park. Oil reaches the ground and forms pools, near modern day downtown Los Angelas, becoming asphalt as the the petroleum biodegrade or evaporate. It usually hardens into stubby mounds. The pools and mounds can be seen at the Museum. Below is a picture.

History

Aboriginal ‘Chumash and Tongva’ lived in La Brea building boats and neolithicly through time. Pulling fallen large tree trunks and pieces of wood from the ocean, they learned to seal the checks between the boards and wood by using the stagnant liquid. An expedition, led by Gaspar de Portolá, led the first documented visit to the tar sands by Spanish in 1769.

By the 1880’s, land was purchased by a Countess of Dundonald. A formal excavation began by Messrs Turnbull, Stewart & Co in 1886.

In 1901 a oil geologist was finally credited with recognizing that fossilized prehistoric animal bones were preserved in pools. John C. Merriam, and the university of California begain a major portion of the early anthropological work. In search of large skeletons, between 1913 and 1915, explorers excavated more than 100 sites finding thousands of specimens. These excavations though, while being examined, have gradually been filled, by an accumulation of asphaltum, dust, leaves, and water.

Only one human has been found, a partial skeleton of the La Brea Woman dated to around 10,000 years. She is estimated to have been 17 to 25 years old, and found associated with remains of a domestic dog.

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Neolithic Architecture: Pest Control, Chimney Cleaning, Log Cabin Building

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What is Neolithic Architecture?

Neolithic Architecture began with the advent great building: mud brick houses (and, eventually timber); art of wild animals and humans; agriculture; and, in transformation from the Epipaleolithic period. It refers to structures encompassing housing and shelter from approximately 10,000 to 2,000 BC, or the Neolithic period. Archaeologists believe Natufians may have been the earliest neolithic builders, and longest continuously inhabited in the world. Around the eastern Mediterranean, Israel and perhaps the Jerichco region.
Neolithic cultures appeared there, in the Levant, and spread with building design and agriculture into the east and west, and north. Neolithic societies appeared in southeast Europe by 6,500 BC, and central Europe by 5,500 BC.
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