Bison latafrons was the long horned bison, bison antiquus ancient bison, and bison bison is your modern bison.

The long horn bison went extinct sometime around last glacial maximum 20-30,000 years ago. The first fossil described in north America was found in Kentucky (Peale 1803). Its range extended into many of the states including Colorado, New Mexico and others.

The bison latafrons or ‘long horn bison’ horns were the longest recorded for the genus. At nearly 7 or 8 feet long. Some say longhorn bison were as large as 4000lbs.

As well, which survived 10-15000 years longer, the bison antinquus, were as big as 3000lbs. It is believed human predation, inbreeding and disease declined, and eventually extinct the populations. Many skull and horns study’s in 80s and 90s, showed that the smaller populations forced to interbreed, combined with hunting pressures, created collapses across the continent leading to demise.

Modern North American bison have two recognized subspecies: the American plains bison (B. b. bison) and the American wood bison (B. b. athabascae). Relationship of modern American bison, and others including the European bison are unclear at present, but both are quite similar genetically and can interbreed (Prusak et al 2004)

Scientists have commented. The taxonomy in great need of revision (McDonald 1981).

Wildlife threats included: smilodon (sabre tooth), pathera atrox (american lion), and possible canis dicus (dire wolf). What do you think would be a threat for giant buffalo?

Did you know?

 ”Latifrons” comes from Latin words referring to a wide forehead; and,
 ”Antiquus” comes from the Latin for “old’ or “ancient”.

B. antiquus had stronger herding and more complex social behavior than B. latifrons.
B. latifrons may have engaged in dominance and fighting behavior characterized by hooking, not butting (McDonald 1981).

Bison are ruminants that graze and browse.
Bison latifrons: more of a browser than a grazer.
An eye-level browser, feeding on small trees and shrubs.

Bison antiquus: more of a grazer; some browsing.
Feeding on low-growing herbs and shrubs.

Would you had messed with a 3 or 4 thousand pound, grazing, 6-8 foot horned beast? How about the smaller modern north American bison?

Bison antiquus skeleton at La brae tar pits

Isn’t the lama cute? ancient lama: hemiaucheia

The genus name is derived from the ancient greek: hēmi-, “half” and auchēn, “neck”.
Discovered in south America in 1880.
Described in north America, in 1883, by Edward Drinker Cope.

Found Se Alberta, Canada to central Mexico. Including Floridia, South Carolina, Mississippi, Texas, Kansas, Nebraska, Arizona, California, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Oregon, Colorado, and Washington.

South American fossils were found in the Luján and Agua Blanca Formations of Buenos Aires Province and Córdoba Province, Argentina. The Tarija Formation of Bolivia. Pilauco of Osorno, Los Lagos, Chile. And, Paraíba, Ceará, and the Touro Passo Formation of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

5.5 feet at shoulder. Around 880lbs full grown.
Habitat included woodlands wetlands and grasslands
Lived in small herds. They were well known in the Mojave desert.

Species are also specified using latinised names from other languages:


H. vera (true hemiauchenia):
Relatively low-crowned teeth (part of visible teeth ends close to gums);
Large caniniform (canine-like) upper first premolar; and
Retention of lower third premolar.

H. blancoensis (blancan hemiauchenia):
Named for blancan age stratum where typically found;
Shorter mandibular diastema (teeth-spacing between incisors and molars); than H. macrocephala and H. vera;
Caniniform upper first premolar;
Absent second premolar;
Upper third premolar present or absent; and,
Lower crowned molars.

H. macrocephala (great-headed hemiauchenia):
Possesses a larger skull relative to other species;
Long, robust limbs;
Large skeletal size;
Presence of a deciduous upper second premolar;
Fully molariform deciduous second premolar (its infant bicuspids were like molars);
High-crowned molars;
Thick layer of cementum on the teeth; and,
Broad mandibular symphysis (line where the bones of the jaw join together) with incisors in a vertical fashion.

H. minima (least hemiauchenia):
Despite being the earliest recognized species, general distinguishing characteristics for H. minima are little known.

Other species:
Also, a few lesser known species. These may or may not be considered legitimate taxa.

Like horses and deer, the genus has a number of species.

Classification history:

In 1974, scientist David Webb, proposed that holomeniscus, lama, and tanupolama fossil specimens were part of a single hemiauchenia genus.

These friendly looking critters had many predators. Including: direwolfs, smilodon, american lion, coyotes and humans. Despite there looks, the ‘half necks’ probably had to keep distance from carnivores and man. And were a tasty snack.

Despite the fact that camels are popularly associated with deserts. It is believed camelops originated in north America during the middle eocene, 44 mya.

The name is derived from the ancient greek cámēlos, “camel” and óps, “face”. “Camel-face”.
Camelops were first described in 1854 by Joesph Leidy. Bones have been found in numerous sites, from Alaska and Cdn Yukon down into Mexico.
There shoulder height is 7 feet, weight around 1800 lbs (at full growth). Scientists are unsure about the back humps. They were a large herbivore, eating coarse shrubs and plants such as saltbrush. It is believed they liked small herds similar to modern Asian and African camels. They mostly lived in lush wetland habitats that supported the small herds. Similar to modern camel species. Camelops probably could travel long distances. Whether or not they could survive for long periods without water, is still unknown. This could have been an adaptation that occurred later.

Did you know?
in the 1850s Arabian camels ate creosote bush from the US-Mexican border. It has been speculated to be part of camelops’s diet, based on the fact that no local living ungulate eats it, yet it was readily consumed in the experiment conducted by the United States camel corps.

Did you know?
During Pleistocene warm periods, a smaller morph of Camelops inhabited Alaska and northern Yukon. These specimens date to around 50–45 thousand years ago, and seem to have been disappeared from the area after this time. Supporting theories.

Extinction:
Biochemical analyses have shown that clovis tools were used in butchering and hunting camels, and probably contributed to there extinction. The result of human population migration and expansion was probably a significant reduction in range. The last species of camelops are hypothesized to have disappeared as a result of new cultures of experienced and efficient hunters. As they moved southeastward across the continent 10-15,000 years ago.


Though, of the many camelops specimens recovered in North America, only a small number demonstrate modification through human actions. Some specimens have been interpreted as having been killed by humans based on the presence of spirally fractured bone fragments. Or, possible shapes and working edges of bone, that look like they may have been used as chopping tools.
None of the reported camelops sites has been associated with stone tools, however, which would be a big indicator of possible human use. Perhaps there is another explanation. They went extinct around 11,700 years ago.

Did you know?
1/3rd of the fossils at found at Tule springs, in the upper Las Vegas (Nevada) valley were camelops. They are also common in the Mojave desert sites.