Discovered around 1904, nothrotheriops shastensis is the Shasta ground sloth. Giving you the fancy name and statistics you see here today.

In northern California, paleontologist William Sinclair is believed to identified nothrotheriops shastensis fossils during an exploration at Potter Creek Cave. These first identified fossils included a incomplete mandibular ramus, 14 molars, and a few other bits and pieces. They were sent to the university of California museum of Paleontology giving us the name and statistics you see today.


Fossil remains of nothrotheriops shastensis have also been found in Anza-Borrego Desert, Rancho La Brea, and Del Mar. Fossilized remains of the genus nothrotheriops (not identified as to species) have also been found in National City and Sonora, Mexico. It is believed nothrotheriops shastensis evolved in south America around 35 million years ago, and migrated into north America, starting around 8 million years ago. Wow. That’s a lot.

Did you know? Fossils of sloths in caves are somewhat a unknown. Some scientists have proposed that the caves were used as nurseries, since fossils from juvenile sloths have been found there. Yet another theory suggests that sloths used caves as a source for special minerals in their diets. Like iron, calcium, or? Even scientists have purposed sloths getting stuck in caves or defending themselves from envious smilodon, scimitar, mountain bear, or group of dire wolf or lions.

Shasta ground sloth from La Bre’s tar pits 1199

In the 1930s, large amounts of Shasta ground sloth were discovered in La Brae’s tar pits. As indicated by the tons and tons of fossils. It probably attracted many other predators and friends there. Almost all Shasta ground sloths remains have been found in the west. Especially in the American southwest.

Description, build and size:
250 kilograms (551 lb) in weight. About 2.75 metres (or 9.0 ft) from snout to tail tip length.
Current living relatives include the tree sloths, and more distantly the anteaters, and armadillos.


Did you know? Large hyoid bones in some sloths’ throats suggest that some may have had well-developed, prehensile tongues similar to that of a giraffe, that aided in feeding.

Paleobiology:
Nothrotheriops behaved like all typical ground sloths of north and south America. Feeding on various plants like the desert globemallow, cacti, yucca, agaves, Joshua trees, and mesquite. It was hunted by various local predators, dire wolves and Smilodon, from which the sloths may have defended themselves by standing upright on hindlegs and tail and swiping with their long foreclaws.

Did you know? The Shasta ground sloth is believed to have played an important role in the dispersal of yucca brevifolia, or Joshua tree seeds. Preserved dung belonging to the sloth has been found to contain Joshua tree leaves and seeds, confirming that they fed on the trees. Scientists suggest that the lack of Shasta ground sloths aiding to disperse the seeds to more favourable climates is causing the trees to decline.

Additionally, in the southwest of north America, there is an assortment 6-8 areas including caves around 11,000 years ago, with evidence of nothrotheiops shastensis. The best known specimen of Shasta ground sloth is from a lava tube in Aden crater, New Mexico. Its body was found with hair and tendon still preserved. This nearly complete specimen is on display at the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History in New Haven, Connecticut. Lets here it for the Shasta ground sloth nothrotheriops shastensis.

History of log cabin building

Log cabins have been affiliated with almost anything living. However more often than not, it has been the ancient history in Europe and the early settlers in the eastern US and Canadian wilderness. When do you think humans started log cabin building?
In Northern Europe or Russia, there are cabins from 3 or 4 thousand years ago. Ones that had there roofs somewhat maintained are still standing, or have been up cycled elsewhere.


Similarly to the lack of raft, ship and boat evidence before 1500ad. During roman, and war times, it was noted many log cabins were built, to be de-constructed and transported to battlefields, for weapons; even boats, jigs, firewood or whatever manufactured wood pieces were necessary at the time. It’s believed not much was left around but was re-used sustainably.
Most cultures were log cabin builders. Provided they had a flint, chert or sharp enough lithic tool supply. To manufacture broadaxes, and other pieces of stone capable of chopping suitable flat trees down, and notching the bark and tree part way out to overlap.

Architecturally speaking, in De Architectura, was the first mention of log cabins using construction with logs. It was described by Roman architect Vitruvius Pollio (20-30bc). He noted that dwellings in northeastern Turkey were constructed by laying logs horizontally overtop of each other and filling in the gaps with “chips and mud”. Most people nowadays call it chinking.

In modern times, important aspects of log cabin building are often the site upon which the cabin was built. It is aimed at providing the cabin inhabitants with both sunlight, drainage, and protection from wind and rain to help them able them see better. And, to be able to thrive and cope. Finding trees in an area on or nearby your building site, is an important factor, and thus studied in archaelogical and building site history because of it (even though most of the logs are decomposed). Extreme weather, animal attacks, and staying warm; dry and safe are also factors.

Did you know? Log cabins have origins in US politics since the early 19th century. At least seven United States presidents were born in log cabins, including Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, and James A. Garfield. William Henry Harrison was not one of the presidents. However during the 1840 presidential election his party were the first to use a log cabin as symbol to show Americans that he was a man of the people.

Did you know? Possibly the oldest surviving log house in the United States is the C. A. Nothnagle Log House (c. 1640) in New Jersey.

More recently coastal and interior log cabins builders have become popular due to there proximity to large fir, cedar, spruce and pine trees. And, the sustainability aspects of building close to the forest.

Interested in log cabin building?
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References:
Revised Log Construction Manual – Ultimate Guide To Building Log Homes – Full Color Edition Paperback – Unabridged, January 1, 2016
by Robert W. Chambers (Author) ISBN-10 ‏ : ‎ 0971573638

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log_cabin

Neolithic Architecture, 300 million years of Beetles

This species, nearly 300 million years old, is estimated hundreds of millions years older, than humans. The Coleoptera (beetles), with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting almost 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms, and growing. Even the curculionidae (weevils), with some 83,000 member species, belong to this order.
Found commonly in every region except sea, and polar. Check out Neolithic Architectures prehistoric chart of beetles. Wow that’s some old, useful information.

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Jeffersons sloth, megalonyx or (greek) “giant claw” is an extinct genus of ground sloths of the family megalonychidae.

Aside from there deceivingly large cuddly, and playful looks. These critters were native and unique to north America during the pliocene and pleistocene. However, because of not many remains, we don’t know as much as some of the other late pleistocene vertabrates. Like sabretooth tiger or direwolf, who were probably found in areas better suited to decomposition.

Thomas Jefferson recorded fossil bones from this animal that had been recovered from a mining cave in West Virginia in the late eighteenth century. Originally, Jefferson thought the remains belonged to a giant cat, based on the size of the large claws. Soon he realized however, that the animal was closely related to South American tree sloths. In 1797, he presented the scientific paper about his findings on megalonyx, or ‘large claw’ to the American philosophical society. The subject was the first two scientific articles ever published in the North America on fossils. Marking the continental beginning of vertebrate paleontology.

Biology and physical description:
There size was quite large. Bigger than most grizzlys, and flat nosed bears. 4m or 10 feet high. Up to 1000Kg or 2200lb big. They had a blunt snout and massive jaw. Large peg like teeth. There hind limbs were flat footed. And, a stout tail. Its believed this allowed them a rear up semi errect portion to feed on leaves.
Forelimbs had 3 highly developed claws. They were quite long. Up to 15-20 inches. Used to strip trees and tear off branches. (the deceiving part)
As with other sloths, the teeth had an outer layer of dentine, rather than enamel, and thus were softer than those of other mammals. Soft teeth wear faster than hard teeth, and to compensate for this, their teeth continued to grow throughout their lifetime (MacFadden et al. 2010).
Although very few specimens have been recovered with preserved soft tissue, better preserved species of late pleistocene ground sloths (shasta ground sloth) were found. And, it is thought that Jefferson’s ground sloth was similarly covered with thick hair.
Sloth bones are truly strange inside and out. Inside, they are virtually unique in the animal kingdom in the absence of any marrow cavity within their long bones. Instead of marrow, the bones are filled with a honeycomb network of bony struts and braces called trabecular or cancellous bone. This gave the bones great strength without the cost of extra weight. Whether that was necessary because of sloths’ weight, due to a unusually active life-style or just an accident of evolution is unknown.

Habitat: woodlands and forest:
Jefferson’s ground sloth had the widest range of all North American ground sloths. They have been recovered from over 150 sites across the United States, as well as from northwestern Canada and western Mexico (Hoganson and McDonald 2007; McDonald et al. 2000). Furthermore, they are the only ground sloth that has been recovered from the Yukon and Northwest Territories in Canada.
Two recent studies were able to link directly-dated specimens from the terminal pleistocene with regional paleoenvironmental records, demonstrating that these particular animals were associated with spruce dominated, mixed conifer-hardwood habitats. (Hoganson and McDonald 2007; Schubert et al. 2004).
Scarcity in the Great Plains has been noted and interpreted as reflecting the paucity or absence of forested areas, the species’ preferred habitat, within the region. (Hoganson and McDonald 2007).

Habitat: Caves:
Megalonyx jeffersoni remains have been recovered from late Pleistocene sites, primarily caves, across the Midwest. These sites include West Cave and Brynjulfson Cave #1 in central Missouri, a site in the Galena Lead region of northwestern Illinois, the Hanson Megalonyx from Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Carter site in western Ohio, Gillenwater near Bowling Green, Kentucky, Robinson Cave in northeastern Tennessee, and Cheek Bend Cave and Darks Mill in central Tennessee.
It is likely several types of habitats were utilized by jefferson’s ground sloth over the course of the Pleistocene.

Evolution:
The first wave of megalonychidae came to North America by island-hopping across the Central American Seaway from South America, where ground sloths arose, prior to formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Based on molecular results, its closest living relatives are the three-toed sloths (Bradypus).

Behaviour:
It probably lived solitarily, only getting together for seasonal mating.
While most ground sloths walked on the outsides of their hind feet, Jefferson’s ground sloth kept their feet flat while walking. Furthermore, the shape of the hip bone indicates that this animal could also stand on its hind legs, using its stout tail for support.
During excavations at Tarkio Valley in southwest Iowa, an adult Megalonyx was found in direct association with two juveniles of different ages, suggesting that adults cared for young of different generations.

Diet:
Teeth shape suggest they were a browser who primarily ate leaves, twigs and possibly nuts. (Kurten and Anderson 1980; McDonald 2005). Isotopic resulys are consistent with this. (Kohn et al. 2005). Analysis of the bone chemistry of indicate the animal had an herbivorous diet, (France et al. 2007), which is in keeping with a previous study conducted for ‘giant claw’ recovered in Alberta, (Bocherens et al. 1994).

Extinction: The youngest widely-accepted radiocarbon dates are from northern Illinois. Obtained from purified bone collagen. A combined age date of 13,800-13,160 years ago.
(Schubert et al. 2004). A slightly older direct date of 13,830-13,560 cal BP was obtained on a toe bone (ungual) in North Dakota (Hoganson and McDonald 2007).

Bipedal Walking:
How and why humans separated themselves from the other primates and began striding confidently on two legs is a question mankind has asked for thousands of years. Many scientists consider it the single characteristic that put us on the evolutionary path to becoming tool-users and uniquely human. So it was with no little surprise that scientists realized 100 years ago that some ground sloths probably could walk upright also. Why do they do it? What advantage is there that all the rest of the mammals have overlooked? Perhaps the answer can be found by considering the theories of why our human ancestors did.
Some scientists credit changing climate, and expanding savannas offering rich new ecological niches to a species that could climb down and out of the trees. Moving more efficiently and safely to open ground. Standing erect may have also been necessary to see predators approaching.
-Other scientists suggest foraging from the ground and being forced to reach up into the trees for food encouraged our ancestors to remain upright to reduce the effort of repeatedly lifting and lowering their torsos; and,
-Some scientists suggest the benefit of being able to hold things in their hands or arms was the force that put us on the bipedal evolutionary path. They also cite tools, food collection and/or infants needing an extended period of maternal care as the motivating force(s).
No one thinks sloths are as efficient striders as humans became. Then again, no one believes primate ancestors dropped out of trees and started walking. What did you think?
Whatever benefits ancestors reaped from upright standing. It started a long time ago, and improved from there. Studying megalonyx may some day produce new insights into our own evolution. Maybe they wanted to have a better view of the moon and solar system. One things for sure, the world is not the same without megalonyx, jeffersons ground sloth or ‘giant claws.’

Blackwater draw is an intermittent stream channel about 140 km (87 mi) long, with headwaters in Roosevelt County, New Mexico.

Around blackwater draw is mostly the Anderson basin district. Across multiple counties, the area drains around 4,000 square kilometers.  Water flows southeastward across the Llano Estacado toward the city of Lubbock, Texas. Where it joins yellow house draw and yellow house canyon at the Brazos river.

For decades around the 1920’s farmers, ranch hands and locals had been collecting lithic tools, there shavings; buffalo, and small mammal bones.   In 1929, New Mexican, Ridgeley Whiteman came across larger mammoth bones.  It was the larger pieces that excited the area and excavations begin in 1932.  What they ended up finding were a lot more than buffalo and arrow heads.  

Evidence of “fluted” points, spearheads. Now known as Clovis points. Were believed to be a new world invention.  There stone and bone weapons, tools, and processing implements were found at the archaeological site.   Clovis points are lanceolate and often, though not always, longer than Folsom points.

Clovis-age artifacts were in association with the remains of extinct Late Pleistocene megafauna, including mammoth, camel, horse, bison, saber-toothed cat, sloths, and dire wolf.  They were hunted by early people who visited the site. Generations of the earliest north American inhabitants hunted and camped at blackwater draw site.  Creating stratified levels of archaeological remains from many different time periods, including Clovis, Folsom, Midland, Agate Basin, and various Archaic period occupants.  

Blackwater draw has been a focal point for scientific community too.   Including: carnegie Institute, smithsonian Institution, academy of natural sciences, national science foundation, United States national museum, national geographic society, and more than a dozen major universities.

Due to the find, clovis chipped stone technology is currently one of the oldest and most widespread chipped stone technologies recognized.

Radiocarbon dates on sediment from the Clovis layers at Blackwater Draw average around 11,290 years before the present.

What are playas?:
Towards the end of the Pleistocene period, the climate began to change. It brought warmer and drier weather in the south, causing the water flow in the region to dramatically decrease. This decrease, caused small seasonal lake basins called playas to form.

“Playas” became popular hunting locations for early North Americans.

Blackwater draw became a national historic landmark in 1961 and incorporated into the national register of historic places in 1966.

King of Clickbait (s): Emmerson Spartz

New Yorker Article most read in 1 day

Young adult capitalizes on power of photos versus text and reading.

-1st to 5000 friend limit on Facebook;
-Capitalize virality and social media ‘super power’
-Budget hawks after 2007 crash
-Die hard zionist zen
-Right way mega domain dose.com


Using blogs, and social media posts for the greatest meme/emjoi or emotional reaction.
Example:
-10 second from death photos;
-The stupidest shit, people laugh, comment omg and brains natural reaction is: “Give me more.”

Effective tools like facebook, twitter and social media, gave him all the tools on how to use; with little or no concern because there were no laws.
Results are kept uncommunicative or top secret.
They are sole recycling content to only pay attention to emotional, (and financial) outcomes

Even though it was most read, The New Yorker pulled Andrew Marantzs article after only one day.

Extreme weather continues to increase, and life expectancy drop. Neolithic architecture (when humans learned the domestication of animals, and agriculture); pest control, chimney cleaning, and log cabin building are increasingly relevant.

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